Over 100 academic level articles written by the staff of TorahResource are available here, free to read and download. These comprehensive commentaries are in depth and very thorough studies on a variety of Biblical and theological topics all of which are relevant to the greater “Messianic Movement”.

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Did the Author of Hebrews Change “Covenant” to “Last Will and Testament”?

A Study of “Covenant” in Hebrews 9

In this study of Hebrews 9:15-17, Tim Hegg explores the word for “Covenant.” Hegg critiques the idea that the author of Hebrews substituted “last will and testament” for “covenant.” In conclusion, Hegg suggests that the author of Hebrews was well aware of the teaching of covenant in the Tanach and that his use of it in Hebrew 9 is based upon this understanding. Read More…


A Study of Matthew 28:18-20

A Shavuot Study on Bringing in the Harvest

Shavuot is the festival of first fruits. Because of this, harvest is a core theme in celebrating this festival. In this study, Tim Hegg looks at Matthew 28:18-20 and the concept of how we as believers in Yeshua are to be workers in the harvest of the nations, i.e., proclaiming the Gospel to people everywhere. Read More


A Study on the Festival of Shavuot

By Tim Hegg

This study looks at the significance of the festival of Shavuot. Included is a look at the name “Shavuot” and its significance. Also, exploring the connection to Passover. Read More


Acquiring The Spiritual Skill of Forgiving

by Tim Hegg

In this study on forgiveness, Tim Hegg looks at Ephesians 4:32 as a key verse for understanding what it means to forgive. Hegg looks at how the Messiah Yeshua has forgiven the elect as a model for how believers are likewise to forgive others. This 20 page paper was the foundation for Hegg’s video on forgiveness (which can be purchased by clicking here). In conclusion, Hegg shows that we as believers are to forgive others before they even ask for forgiveness, and that the spiritual practice of forgiving must be a core characteristic of those who are disciples of Yeshua. Read More…


Acts 15 and The Jerusalem Council

Did They Conclude the Torah was not for Gentiles?

by Tim Hegg

In this look at Acts, Tim Hegg investigates the theory that the Jerusalem Council concluded Torah was not for Gentiles. Many within believing circles today teach that this council was establishing the Noachide laws for the Gentiles. Hegg has written on this specific teaching elsewhere click here to read Hegg’s paper on the Noachide laws. In this article, Hegg focuses more on what the four laws given to the Gentiles in Acts 15 actually were. Read More…


All Things to All Men

Paul and the Torah in 1Corinthians 9:19–23

by Tim Hegg

This is a study of 1Cor 9:19–23, and focuses and the phrase “all things to all men.” Tim Hegg shows that Paul did not mean that he gave up Torah observance in order to win the Gentiles. Rather, Hegg shows that Paul lived a Torah obedient life both among Jews and Gentiles. This article shows that Paul was not a theological chameleon. Read More…


Am I Serious? Responding to Derek Leman

A Short Response

by Tim Hegg

In this one page article, Tim Hegg responds to a blog post that is critical of his rejection and detailed analysis of the Divine Invitation teaching put forth by FFOZ. The response is directed to Derek Leman who has challenged Hegg’s criticism on his blog. Read More


An Assessment of The Divine Invitation Teaching

by Tim Hegg

This article is primarily a critical review of “One Law and the Messianic Gentile,” Messiah Journal 101(Aug 2009), 46–70, published by First Fruits of Zion. Tim Hegg investigates the Divine Invitation teaching put forth by FFOZ. Divine Invitation teaches that the Torah is for the Jewish people. Gentiles, on the other hand, are not obligated, but invited to keep the Torah. This theology separates the body of Messiah into two groups. Hegg shows this teaching to be biblically baseless. Read More

An Investigation of The Lord’s Table

Passover or Communion?

by Tim Hegg

Questions about the Lord’s Table always arise around Pesach (Passover), and for good reason. The very texts (both in the Gospels and in 1 Corinthians) which are read by Messianic Jews as we celebrate the Passover season are those which the Christian church reads before the Lord’s Table. For Messianic believers, these texts give deep meaning to the yearly festival, but to the Christian church, these texts describe a ceremony which has almost no resemblance to a Pesach seder. So the first question, and perhaps the most important one, is simply this: how did the Lord’s Table get started? Where can we find its origin? Read More


An Open Letter to The IAMCS

by Tim Hegg

In this open letter, Tim Hegg responds to the accusation (made by the IAMCS in their recent position paper entitled “One Law, Two Sticks: A Critical Look at the Hebrew Roots Movement”) that he “equates Torah observance to the gospel itself,” a “gospel of obedience to the law.” Accompanying the letter are quoted examples for some of Hegg’s published works which show conclusively that the charge made against him by the IAMCS is unfounded and blatantly false. Read More


Are The Festivals (Moedim) for Today

by Tim Hegg

For those coming to the rich blessing of Torah, the festivals are a central part. But Christianity teaches these festivals are done away with. Is there validity to these claims? In this article, Tim Hegg goes to the Scripture to investigate if the festivals are for today. Read More


Battle For The Bible: Are The Inspired Scriptures Enough?

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the teachings of some who say that the Bible is not enough. These teachers are claiming that we need rabbinic literature, such as the Mishnah and Talmuds, to truly live a life of holiness. This teaching is a direct assault on the 66 Books of Scripture—Hegg explains why. Read More


Believers, Kabbalah and Hasidic Judaism

How Far Apart Are We?

By C. M. Hegg

Hasidic Judaism began in the 18th ceutnry with a man named Israel ben Eliezer, aka the Ba’al Shem Tov. However, to properly understand the Jewish mindset that led the Ba’al Shem Tov to easily introduce this new theological order to a substantial portion of European Jewry, we must begin much earlier. Read More…


Bible Language Revolution

by Rob Vanhoff

In this short 4 page article, Rob Vanhoff looks at the progression of Bible translations up into the modern era, pointing out tools we now have for digging deeper into the biblical text. He also mentions computer programs that allow Bible scholars a vast amount of tools for in depth study of the Scriptures. Read More


Bilateral Ecclesiology is Not Biblical

by Tim Hegg

Within the Messianic movement there are those who are teaching Bilateral Ecclesiology. This theology teaches that God has one people separated into two groups. The Jewish believers should be in their own groups keeping Torah, and the Gentiles should be in the Church. As a result, many have found themselves feeling like outcasts. In this article Tim Hegg shows bilateral ecclesiology to be man made. Hegg shows the Bible does not instruct us to build the body of Messiah in this way.

  • Is the “One Law” message flawed?
  • Are we wrong to teach that God expects all of His children, whether Jew or Gentile, to obey the Torah and walk righteously before Him?
  • Are there two covenants that bind people to God, one for Jews and another for Gentiles?
  • At TorahResource, we remain firm in what has become known as the “One Law” position because we see it to be based upon Scripture.

Read More


Blessings and Curses:

Some Background from the Ancient Near Eastern Covenants

by Tim Hegg

This article shows the manner in which Deuteronomy is structured after the common Suzerain-Vassal treaties of the Ancient Near East. Showing the historical background of the covenant blessings and curses can help us understand Paul’s point in Galatians 3:10–14. This article gives insight into how Yeshua “redeemed us from the curse of the Torah.” Read More


Bringing In The Harvest: A Study of The Gospel

by Tim Hegg

In this lengthy 51 page study, Tim Hegg looks at the concept of “evangelism” in the Gospels. This study looks at what believers are commissioned to do as laborers in the harvest of nations (Matt 9:38; Luke 10:2). Read More


Can We Speak of The Law in The New Testament in Monolithic Terms?

by Tim Hegg

This paper, delivered at the NW Regional ETS Meeting in 1996, explores the possibility that “Law” (nomos in the Greek) may at times be used in the Apostolic Scriptures to refer to traditional halachah extant in the 1st Century which is not specifically mentioned in the written Torah. Some of these traditions have parallels in the later rabbinic rulings, referred to by the rabbis as the “Oral Torah.” The paper explores how some of these traditions were utilized by Yeshua and His disciples. Read More


The Chronology of the Crucifixion

by Tim Hegg
The chronology of the crucifixion is hotly debated every year. In this article, Tim Hegg lays out a chronology that makes the Synoptic Gospels line up with the Gospel of John. Previously, scholars have seen either John or the Synoptics to be wrong. As a result, this has brought the question of whether the New Testament can be claimed to be historically accurate and inerrant. In more recent scholarship, scholars are beginning to realize all four Gospels are harmonious. Most noteworthy, Hegg places John in his first century context. Read More…


Circumcision As a Sign:

The Theological Significance

by Tim Hegg

In the 1st Century CE, circumcision was understood as a sign of being Jewish. But what was the original intent in giving this sign to Abraham? This paper looks at the biblical text, seeking answers to that question. Read More


Circumcision in The Second Temple Period

Investigating Acts 15

by Rob Vanhoff

In this article, Rob Vanhoff investigates circumcision among various groups within the first century. Vanhoff begins by looking at Acts 15 and the wording used therein. Vanhoff clearly shows that circumcision can not be simply understood as a physical act. Rather, each group carried their own traditions and expectations when conversion was considered. This paper dives deep into the first century and the various beliefs that were held. Read More


Comfort One Another with these Words

Thoughts on 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18

By Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at 1 Thess. 4:13-18 in order to investigate the phrase “comfort one another with these words.” What does this mean for believers, and how should they view this command? Read More…


Community or a Congregation?

For What are We Striving?

by Tim Hegg

What has become very clear to me in recent days is that many leaders in the Messianic movement have never really grasped the difference between a Torah Community and a Christian Congregation. In other words, one of the reasons that the current Messianic movement so much resembles the Christian Church and why so many Messianic Congregations seek acceptance within Christendom is that most of the leaders in this movement have never been able to think outside of the box of Christian ecclesiology. Or to say it another way, the model we have of a “Messianic Congregation” is essentially the Church model with some different traditions and theological perspectives. The building’s structure is the same, we’ve just put in new windows and replaced the siding. And in some cases, it appears we’ve used vinyl siding. Read More


Comrade Or Counterfeit Hasidic Judaism vs. Messianic Faith

by Caleb Hegg

In this 19 page paper, Caleb Hegg looks at the history and theology of the Hasidic movement. Hegg sheds light on the basic theological differences between the Messianic movement and the various Hasidic movements today. Are these two religious movements so far apart? Many within the Messianic movement say they are not, but Hegg would like to suggest otherwise. Read More


Counting Our Way to Shavuot (Booklet)

by Tim Hegg
A collection of Scripture verses for each day of Counting the Omer.

Suggestions for using this booklet:

  1. Read the day’s verse(s) in connection with counting the omer and use the check box to mark your progress.
  2. Find one principle and its life-application from the daily verse(s).
  3. Choose one of the verses each week to memorize.
  4. If you are able, read the verse(s) in their original Hebrew or Greek as practice in your Hebrew or Greek studies, and for further study.
  5. At least one verse has been selected from each of the 66 books in the Bible. Consider what verse or verses you might have chosen. Read More…


Counting the Omer (Pamphlet with Traditional Blessings)

by Tim Hegg

This three page pamphlet has the traditional blessings for counting the omer. Hebrew, English and transliteration make it easy to follow along. Even for those who don’t speak Hebrew. Read More…


Counting The Omer: An Inquiry into The Divergent Methods

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the various ways the omer was counted in the first century. What is more, Hegg suggests a specific counting Yeshua held to. In conclusion, Hegg contends that followers of Yeshua should adopt the counting of their Master. … Read More


Did God Change His Mind About Food?

An Investigation into Mark 7:19

by Tim Hegg

Many who oppose believers keeping Torah turn to Mark 7:19 as proof that the food laws have been done away with, and thus indicating that the Torah has been abolished. In this verse, Yeshua declares all foods clean…or does He? In this article Tim Hegg shows that the Greek found in this verse is not as cut and dried as many may think. As a result, this verse can have quite a different meaning. Also, looking at the context, Hegg shows that the correct translation of this verse does not have to do with food. Read More


Did Yeshua Break The Sabbath?

by Tim Hegg

Often, believers who begin to follow the Torah do so because of one issue… the Sabbath. The joy and rich tradition of the Sabbath is a blessing to many believers. Yet, those who begin to keep this day might run into the same persistent question: “Didn’t Yeshua break the Sabbath?” A look at the Scriptures tells a different story. In this short article, Tim Hegg goes to the Scripture to show that Yeshua did not break the Sabbath. Hegg shows that the laws supposedly broken by Yeshua are found nowhere in the written Torah, but were only the traditions of men. Read More


Did Yeshua Converse with Nicodemus in Greek?

What language were they actually speaking?

by Rob Vanhoff

Many in modern times believe the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) were written in Hebrew or Aramaic. Yet, the manuscript evidence points to Greek as the original language. In this fascinating article, Rob Vanhoff looks at John 3 for clues. Yeshua was an up and coming teacher, and Nicodemus was “the Teacher of Israel,” and thus the language in which they conversed seems obvious. Moreover, the language of the text actually gives us some striking answers to the question of what language they were speaking because the word play only “works” if they were speaking Greek. Read More


Did Yeshua go to Hell?: Interpreting 1Peter 3:19-20

by Tim Hegg

Generally, the interpretation of this passage falls to one of two sides: one which understands the passage to teach that Yeshua descended to Hades or Hell during the time He was in the grave, and the other which denies that He descended during this period. Read More


Didn’t God Abolish the Ceremonial and Civil Parts of the Law?

by Tim Hegg

In this 11th chapter from Tim Hegg’s book “Why We Keep Torah: Ten Persistent Questions”, Tim Hegg looks at the Torah. Can we break the Torah into three categories? Namely, civil, ceremonial and moral laws? Hegg suggests the teaching that God has done away with the civil and ceremonial parts of the law, is wrong. Read More…


A Divine Yeshua and One God

Written for 503Theo – Theology Proper

By Glenn Minnis

In this 5 page paper, TorahResource Institute student Glenn Minnis answers an objection that goes something like this: “Anyone who believes that Yeshua is deity is a polytheist (believes in more than one God).” Minnis takes the reader through a concise rebuttal that shows from Scripture how this objection is false. Read More


Do The Seven Go to Heaven?

An Investigation into the History of the Noachide Laws

by Tim Hegg

This is a paper investigating the Noachide Laws as presented in the rabbinic literature. The paper shows that the Noachide Laws were never envisioned by the early rabbis as a means for Gentiles to obtain a place in the world to come. In conclusion, Tim Hegg shows that reading these laws back into the New Testament is anachronistic. Read More…


Does the English Word “Easter” Derive from the Name of the Pagan Goddess “Ishtar”?

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the claim that the name “Easter” comes from the pagan goddess Ishtar. Hegg looks at the etymology of this word, and the history of this claim. In addition, Hegg looks at the oldest references we have of Easter being seen as pagan. Due to the evidence, Hegg challenges the commonly believed claims. Read More…


Face of a Friend: Exodus 33:11

by Caleb Hegg

Exploring the wording within Exodus 33:11, Caleb Hegg surveys some of the suggestions for what Moses saw on Mt. Sinai. Hegg then goes on to suggest that Moses was not simply hearing a voice, or confronted by a white light. Rather, Hegg suggests that the pre-incarnate Yeshua was the One with Whom Moses spoke. Read More


Faith Is

Encouraging Thoughts From Hebrews 11

by Tim Hegg

Tim Hegg looks at Hebrew 11:1 and what “faith” is. This 2 page article is just a short look at faith and the message the author of Hebrews was conveying to the reader. Read More…



A Few Thoughts

by Tim Hegg

As the title suggests, Tim Hegg looks at Faithfulness in the Bible and gives some reflective thoughts on this subject. Hegg looks at faithfulness in the Tanach (Old Testament) and in the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) in order to reflect on this concept within the life of a believer. Read More…


Five Arguments Against the Flat Earth

by Spike Psarris, Creation Astronomy

Who would have thought that in our modern world of wireless technologies, satellite communications and space exploration that we would have to address the idea that the earth is flat? Unfortunately, this incredibly false teaching has penetrated the Messianic/Hebrew Roots Movements and is spreading rapidly, misleading many. In this brief article, Spike Psarris refutes the flat earth claim with five easy to understand and carefully explained arguments. Read More…

Spike Psarris has a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering from the University of Massachusetts and has done graduate work in Physics. He was formerly an engineer in the United States military space program. Find more articles and videos from Spike at

This article is shared with permission—Spike Psarris and Creation Astronomy are not associated with TorahResource or TorahResource Institute.


Foundational Truths for Torah Communities

by Tim Hegg

Building Torah communities is something that is not easy. This book looks at various core doctrines that should be found within a Biblically founded group. It also investigates what the Bible says about leaders and deacons, and tips for starting and growing a godly community. Read More…


Genesis 18:22 & the Tiqqune Sopherim

Textual, Midrashic, and for What Purpose?

by Tim Hegg

This paper looks at Genesis 18:22 and specifically the scribal notes for this text. Tim Hegg investigates the noted change within the text, suggesting the scribes never actually made a change. In conclusion, Hegg proposes the text is original, and the note from the scribes comes from debates between rabbis and Christian leaders, over the deity of Yeshua. This paper was presented at the 2016 Evangelical Theological Society annual conference. Read More…


Gentiles Believers and Pesach in The Pre Destruction Era

by Tim Hegg
This focused study looks at how Gentiles were received and operated in the 1st-century temple. Furthermore, Hegg looks at Gentiles and the festival of Passover. He begins by investigating if Gentiles sacrificed in the temple. The focus then changes to ritual purity and if first century Judaisms considered non-Jews unclean. Finally, Tim Hegg looks at female Gentile believers and the festival of Passover … Read More


Growing Strong in Our Faith

Considering the Means of Grace which God has Granted Us for the Process of Sanctification

by Tim Hegg

This focused study takes the reader through the means of grace God uses in the process of sanctification. Hegg looks at God’s self-revelation, and His revelation through Scripture. Hegg then move to communion with God through prayer and the means of strengthening our faith, and also looks at the strengthening our faith through fellowship in community. Read More…


Hanukkah Blessings Booklet

by Tim Hegg
A Blessing Booklet used for each day of Hanukkah. Hebrew, English, and transliteration for easy use. Scripture readings to go along with each day. Perfect for home and family use, or congregations. Read More…


Hanukkah Means Dedication

by Tim Hegg

In this short paper, Tim Hegg looks at dedication. During the time of Hanukkah, Hegg shows that the primary focus of the Festival is God’s call upon His children not to assimilate into the world… Read More


Hanukkah: Don’t Give Up

by Tim Hegg
One of the messages that is impressed upon us each year as we celebrate Hanukkah is the call to persevere, to not give up when events and circumstances weigh heavy upon us. When we consider how our people must have felt as they suffered at the hands of the foreign governments under which they labored during the Maccabean period, we are strengthen by their courage and perseverance in the face of overwhelming odds. The few stood faithfully against the many, and God gave them the victory… Read More


Hearing The Shofar on Yom Teruah

by Tim Hegg
On Yom Kippur, we are commanded to hear the sound of the shofar. What does this mean, and why would God command it? In this article, Tim Hegg looks at what it means to “hear” the sound of the shofar … Read More


The Hebrew Word Yada’

By Tim Hegg

The Hebrew word “know” (yada’), which is a common root in the semitic languages, has a wide range of meanings depending upon the context in which the word is found. Like our word “know” in English, the Hebrew word can indicate mental knowledge, that is, that a person “understands” or “has knowledge” of something, as when we say “I know that 2 + 2 is 4”. Read More…


Hell & the Eternal Punishment of the Wicked

by Tim Hegg

Where do the wicked go when they die? If you grew up in the Christian church, you have a simple answer… Hell! Many believe, however, that the answer is much bigger. For some, the idea that an all loving God could torment a soul for eternity is impossible. But what does the Bible tell us about hell? Especially relevant, does God impose eternal punishment? Hegg looks at the terms Sheol and Hades in the Bible, as well as some current theologies and teachings about hell. Hegg also takes a hard look at Scriptural passages such as, Matt. 25:46 and Rev.14:9-11. Read More 


Hermeneutics: A Growing Crisis in The Messianic Movement

Are the Scriptures Alone our Sure Foundation or Do We Need Something More?

by Tim Hegg

Are you hearing Messianic teachers say that the we need to submit to “greater Israel” in our pursuit of Torah? Are you curious about the mystical method of interpreting the Bible, formed on the word Pardes (peshat, remez, d’rash, sod), and whether it is a correct way to explore the meaning of the biblical text? Then you need to read this essay. Read More


Historic Christianity and Apostolic Judaism The Core Difference

by Tim Hegg

In this 10 page article Tim Hegg looks at the differences between historic Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism and what he terms Apostolic Judaism. Hegg defines Apostolic Judaism as those who accept Yeshua; accept the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament); and accept Torah as defined by Yeshua and His Apostles. Is there really a difference between these three groups? Should there be? Hegg looks at the various groups and where their Biblical approach has taken them. Read More…


How Does God Forgive Sin?

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at how God saves the elect. Hegg begins by defining what sin is, then moves to man’s purpose. This article also deals with what sin does between man and God, and how payment for sin can be made. Hegg also looks at different kinds of sin, and the errant idea that God counts a sinner’s repentance as payment. Read More


In What Language Were the Synoptic Gospels Written?

By C.M. Hegg

This paper looks at the language spoken in and around Israel in the first century, and the claims that Hebrew or Aramaic was the lingua franca of the time. The focus then shifts to the writing of the Synoptic Gospels and what has been titled the “Synoptic Problem.” Caleb Hegg looks at the various claims related to the order of writing and the suggestion of a “Q” document. Finally, the presence of what is known as the Hebrew Matthew, or the Hebrew Gospel is then looked at and its part in the writing of the Gospels. In conclusion, Caleb believes there is solid evidence to suggest the original language these works were written in. Read More 


Is Obligation The Wrong Word?

by Tim Hegg

In our modern times, many believers are coming to the realization they should be keeping Torah. Friends and family usually have a huge problem with such a claim. Those who oppose such a view would say believers are not obligated to keep the Torah. But are they right? In this article, Tim Hegg suggests that as individuals who are in a loving covenant relationship with God, and therefore our obligation is one which is motivated by love. Hegg suggests we are honored and blessed to keep the covenant God shares with us and in conclusion, that obeying God is an obligation which flows from love for those who have experienced God’s love for them in Yeshua. Read More


Is the Name “Jesus” Pagan?

By C.M. Hegg

Some within the Hebrew Roots movement claim that the name “Jesus” comes from pagan origins, or might even be code for “Hail Zeus,” but is this true? What is more, some claim that the titles “Christ” and “Christian” are pagan because they are Greek translations of names that were originally penned in Hebrew. In this article, Caleb Hegg looks at the claims that Jesus is a pagan name, and that the presence of the letter “J” proves this as this letter did not show up in the English language until the 16th century. Hegg then turns to the original language of the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) and investigates the claims that these were originally written in Hebrew. Do the Church Father’s really make reference to a “Hebrew Gospel” over two dozen times? Read More


Is the Torah Only for Jews?

By Tim Hegg

This paper is a response to the “Definition of Messianic Judaism” by the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations.

“In this study I want to deal with a belief not only held by some in mainline Christian theologies, but also heard from teachers within ‘Messianic Judaism.’ This is the view that the Torah is the special possession of the Jewish people, and that many of its stipulations are therefore directed toward Jews, not Gentiles. Those who take this position believe that while the moral aspects of the Torah are universal for all of God’s children, the various stipulations of the Torah which are particularly covenantal are for the Jewish people only, given to them as distinct marks of their unique position in the covenant made with Israel. These could include such things as the Sabbath, Festivals, kosher laws, wearing of tzitzit, and generally all of those things in the Torah which mark Israel out as distinct from the nations. In some cases, non-Jews who wish to obey these aspects of Torah are criticized as taking to themselves those things which belong uniquely to the Jewish people. Furthermore, the teaching that the whole Torah is the possession and responsibility of all of God’s children is labeled as theological error and therefore dangerous for the body of Messiah, because when non-Jews live out Torah, the lines of distinction between Jew and non-Jew are blurred.” – Tim Hegg

Read More…


It Is Often Said 2000 Years of Christianity Cannot Be Wrong

by Tim Hegg

The Church has prospered over the past 2000 years. Clearly God has blessed the Christian Church in many ways. For those in the Torah movement, a common question is often heard. “If the Torah isn’t done away with, how did the Church miss it?” Or perhaps another way it is said is, “how can 2000 years of Christianity be wrong?” In this article, Tim Hegg takes this question head on. Hegg shows the problems with the idea that the Church can be spoken of as a monolithic group. As a result, Hegg contends that if this line of reasoning were true, then the reformation would also need to be questioned. Read More


It Is Often Said:

The Law Was Given Only to Condemn

by Tim Hegg
This 7 page article is an expert from the fourth book of Tim Hegg’s series, It Is Often Said. Tim Hegg looks at 1 Timothy 1:3-11 and what Paul means when he says the Law was given to condemn. Doesn’t this prove that we don’t have to keep Torah? Many would say, “yes.” Hegg takes a careful look at this passage and offers a different conclusion. Read More…


Kol Nidrei Service (Booklet)

Focused on Yeshua

by Tim Hegg
This booklet goes through the Kol Nidrei service. The Kol Nidrei is the traditional service at Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). This booklet presents the service in Hebrew and English, with transliteration of the Hebrew. As a result, the prayers are easy to follow along, even for those who do not speak Hebrew. Read More…


Lashon Hara: Evil Speech or Gossip

by Tim Hegg
Nothing destroys a community faster than gossip. What does the Almighty think about “evil speech” (Lashon hara)? In this short article Tim Hegg looks at gossip and what it can do to relationship. Hegg looks at what the Bible says about evil speech. Read More…


Legalism: Some Thoughts

by Tim Hegg
As followers of Yeshua come to live by Torah, they are often accused of “legalism” by their Christian friends. But what is legalsim? Is following God’s Torah legalism? In this short article, Tim Hegg looks at this concept and what it really means. Hegg looks at various definitions of this word and how its usage defines its meaning. [ulplinklocker id=’UiSxkn2zDGeweF3q’]Read More…[/ulplinklocker]


Listening for The Shofar: Thoughts on Yom Teruah

by Tim Hegg
Why has God Given us the Mo‘adim?

  • The Hebrew word “mo‘adim” ( מוֹעֲדִים ) means “appointed times,” that is, days of special significance which are scheduled to be observed.
  • Thus, the mo‘adim are appointed by God in order to teach us important lessons.
  • We first hear of “mo‘adim” in the creation account:

Then God said, “Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be for signs and for mo‘adim and for days and years….” (Gen 1:14)

Read More


119 Ministries and the Copper Scroll (Part 1): A Response to Jim Barfield

By Caleb Hegg

In this hard hitting article, Caleb Hegg looks at the claims by Jim Barfield of the Copper Scroll Project (CSP), and 119 Ministries. CSP has made some fantastic claims concerning the lost treasures of the temple, suggesting they could be found at Qumran. Hegg looks at the claims, along with looking at the Hebrew of the Copper Scroll. Hegg shows that the timeline put forward by CSP and 119 Ministries do not line up. Furthermore, Hegg shows that both 119 Ministries and CSP have totally disregarded the Hebrew grammar within the scroll. Especially relevant is CSP’s total disregard for the opinion of leading archeologists. Read More…


119 Ministries and the Copper Scroll (Part 2)

A Response to Jim Barfield

By Caleb Hegg

In part one of this series, Caleb Hegg wrote about some of the blatant errors put forward by 119 Ministries and the Copper Scroll project. Jim Barfield, president of the Copper Scroll Project responded to the first paper. In Part 2, Hegg address Barfield’s response. Barfield attempts to downplay the lack of source evidence, along with the grammatical issues Hegg has brought up. Beyond this, Barfield shows a total lack of knowledge in the Hebrew language, even going to “Google Translate” for help. Consequently, Hegg shows the fantastic claims of the CSP to be nothing more than a wild goose chase. Read More…


Looney Tune for a “Sabbath” Moon

Investigating the Lunar Sabbath Teaching
by Rob Vanhoff

In this short article, Rob Vanhoff looks at the teaching of Lunar Sabbath. Those who advocate this theory suggest the Sabbath is reckoned by the moon. Therefore, the Sabbath does not fall on a Saturday, but rather changes according to the moon’s cycle. Vanhoff shows that for such a theory to be true, Israel would have had to undergone “collective amnesia.” Furthermore, Vanhoff shows that the Tanach itself does not support such a theory. Consequently, Vanhoff shows this teaching to be false. Read More


Mark 7:19b: A Short Technical Note

by Tim Hegg
In this 7 page article, Tim Hegg looks at Mark 7:19b and the phrase that many Biblical translations have translated, “Thus declaring all foods clean.” Hegg looks at the Greek syntax in this passage to understand why some of the major English translations have such different versions of the passage. Read More…


Matthew 28:19: A Text Critical Investigation

by Tim Hegg
In this 9 page article, Tim Hegg undertakes a text critical investigation of the phrase, “in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.” Read More…


Matthew 5:17-20: Yeshua’s View of the Law

by Tim Hegg
Matthew 5:17-20 gives to us the clear teaching of Yeshua Himself regarding the Torah. These verses are often referenced when discussing believers and the Torah. Are Torah pursuant believers missing something? Hegg looks at this passage line by line to gain a better understanding. Read More…


Messiah Our Pesach Has Also Been Sacrificed

by Tim Hegg
This article focuses on the festival of Passover. For believers in the Messiah Yeshua, it might seem obvious that Yeshua represents our Passover lamb. Tim Hegg focuses on our salvation through the Messiah Yeshua. And, therefore, our personal salvation story in the Passover festival … Read More


(Mis)translating John 8:58

By Rob Vanhoff

Yeshua is 100% man. Of course! But when I go on to assert that He is also 100% God and preexisted the creation of the world, some will slam the brakes. “No way, man. Stop right there! We’re not polytheists!”

As you might imagine, John 8:58 is one of those texts that must be navigated for those who would uphold the canon of the Apostolic Writings (aka “New Testament”) yet deny Yeshua’s preexistence or deity. As of late I have encountered two different internet teachers making bold claims about the meaning of Yeshua’s words, and I want to address them both. The first writer argues from an Aramaic (Syriac) text,  the second from the Greek. Read More…


My Big Fat Greek Mindset

by Tim Hegg

This article is the basis for Tim Hegg’s audio teaching by the same name (Click Here to purchase). Tim Hegg explores what it means to have a Greek vs. Hebrew worldview. Hegg begins by looking at how Greek philosophy has shaped our western perspective. As a result, the texts of the Bible are viewed through this same lens. Hegg then looks at a Hebrew or biblical worldview, and suggests we need to retrain our minds. As a result, the Scriptures come into new light. Read More


On Decoding the “Paleo” Script Pictures

Looking at Hebrew Word Pictures

by Rob Vanhoff

In this short article, Rob Vanhoff looks at several examples of Paleo-Hebrew throughout the ANE. Vanhoff compares these various examples in order to show that the difference between the languages is not in the script. Therefore, the suggestion that letters written in Paleo-Hebrew have special hidden meaning is false. In conclusion, Vanhoff shows that if the Hebrew font has secret spiritual meaning, then so do all the other Semitic languages that utilized the Paleo letters.

Read More


One Law Movement: A Response to Russ Resnik and Daniel Juster

by Tim Hegg
In this article, Tim Hegg responds to an article entitled “One Law Movements: A Challenge to the Messianic Jewish Community.” This article was written by Russ Resnik and Daniel Juster, who state that the Torah is not for Gentiles, but given to the Jewish people alone. Hegg goes to the Bible itself to test the thesis of this article and shows that it is actually contrary to what the very word of God teaches. Read More


One Torah or Two?

by Rob Vanhoff

Those within the Messianic and Hebrew Roots movement are faced with an interesting suggestion. Within Judaism there is one written Torah, but there is also the “Oral Torah.” Within the emerging Torah movement, many believers are suggesting the Oral Torah is actually divinely sanctioned. In this article, Rob Vanhoff looks at this claim. Investigating the history of this Jewish tradition, Vanhoff shows that the concept of “two Torahs” has not always been the norm. Rather, as is often the case, later rabbinic authorities have imposed their traditions as upon earlier rabbinic authorities, making it appear as though they were the founders of what was only a later tradition. Therefore, Vanhoff shows the written Torah to be the only divinely revealed instructions for righteous living given to God’s people … Read More


Our Messianic Faith and Yom Kippur

by Tim Hegg

The day of Yom Kippur comes to us with the traditions of somber reflections and introspection. The divine injunction to “humble your soul” (Lev 23:27, 29, 32; Num 29:7) on this day teaches us that this appointed time, more than any of the other mo’edim, is a time to stop and ponder where we each need to seek repentance, restoration, and correction before the Lord and with our fellow man. It is a time to make an honest evaluation of our own progress in sanctification—in becoming more and more like our Messiah, Yeshua. Such an evaluation is healthy and proper, even as Paul admonished the Corinthians:

Test yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves! Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Yeshua Messiah is in you—unless indeed you fail the test? (2Cor 13:5)

Yet when we study the traditions which have encircled the observance of Yom Kippur throughout the centuries, we are confronted with a sense that many Jewish communities approach the day as though the manner in which one humbles oneself is directly related to whether or not they will be received by God. Hegg shows that our right-standing with God is a matter of His pure and sovereign grace and not something a person can earn through repentance… Read More


Paleo Hebrew Validity As a Hermeneutical Tool

Radio Transcript with Dr. Michael Brown

In this transcript of an interview with Dr. Michael Brown, Paleo Hebrew is discussed. Many within the Hebrew Roots movement think that they can use Paleo Hebrew to find deeper meaning in the biblical text. Dr. Brown has his doctorate in Near Easter Languages and discusses the script known as Paleo Hebrew. Dr. Brown shows this form of interpretation is not a valid hermeneutic but is based upon false linguistic assumptions. Read More…


Passover Haggadah For Disciples of the Messiah Yeshua

By Caleb Hegg

Many believers are coming to a realization that the biblical festivals are rich in meaning, and beneficial for the people of God. Following God’s Torah is viewed differently depending on the community you are with. Some believers enjoy the richness found within a traditional Haggadah, but others may feel overwhelmed.

While celebrating the Passover, Yeshua commanded us to “do this in remembrance of Me” (Luke 22:19). Traditions can be a wonderful tool to help us worship and serve God. This Haggadah attempts to preserve a little of the traditional Passover Haggadah, while focusing mainly on reading Scripture and the redemption we have through the death, resurrection, and ascension of our Lord Yeshua. Read More…


Pesach – Passover

Numbers 28:16-25

by Tim Hegg

What do we experience during Pesach as believers in Yeshua? Moreover, how do the multifaceted traditions of Passover instruct us?  In this article, Tim Hegg demonstrates how the traditions of Pesach provide our families the learning labs designed by God. In conclusion, many of the traditions celebrated at Pesach reinforce God’s covenant promise to His people from generation to generation. Read More…


Preparing for Yom Kippur

by Tim Hegg
The days between Yom Teruah and Yom Kippur are traditionally referred to as yamim nora’im, “days of awe.”

  1. For rabbinic Judaism, these days offer a person time to repent of past sins.
  2. But only genuine repentance will be accepted by God, so there is a sense of anxiety as to whether a person has sufficiently repented so as to receive atonement on Yom Kippur.

Hegg shows that this perspective is not what is taught in the Bible itself, but that right-standing with God is a matter of His grace and not something the sinner can earn through what rabbinic Judaism considers “proper repentance.” Hegg shows that true repentance is an essential aspect of a life marked by saving faith, and such repentance is itself a gift from God …Read More


Prohibited Foods for The Week of Unleavened Bread

A practical list of what is and isn’t prohibited according to Scripture

In this single page article, Hegg outlines those items which the Torah specifically prohibits during the time of Unleavened Bread. For example, he considers only the actual biblical texts relating to this subject. He provides suggestions for families to implement in their homes. Finally, this article encourages us to embrace these days and allow them to instruct us in the Lord’s ways. Read More…


Properly Defining Sola Scriptura

by Tim Hegg
Jacob Franczak’s article entitled “The Five Solas: Sola Scriptura” (Messiah Journal #111, FFOZ) proposes to do away with these pillars of the Protestant Reformation beginning with the first of the five, “Sola Scriptura,” Latin for “The Scriptures Alone.” Unfortunately, Fanczak apparently has never studied the Reformers’ own definition of this doctrine, and so he creates his own “straw-man” version and sets out to knock this fabricated scarecrow down. In this short article (2 1/2 pages) Hegg gives the historic definition of “Sola Scriptura” and shows where Franczak has missed the mark. Read More


Psalm 22:16 Like a Lion or They Pierced?

by Tim Hegg
In this short article Tim Hegg looks at Psalm 22:16. Some translations have “like a lion…” while other translations have “they pierced…” Why such a difference? Was this passage changed by Christians to fit their theology? Some within Orthodox Judaism say it was. Hegg looks at the Lxx and the Dead Sea Scrolls, the most ancient manuscript we have of this text, to investigate the original wording of the text. Read More…


Qohelet and Sukkot

The Traditional Reading during this Joyous Time

by Tim Hegg

The wisdom of the Sages is displayed yet again in the tradition of reading Qohelet (Ecclesiastes) during the Festival of Sukkot. But it is not readily apparent why Qohelet was chosen for a festival that has rejoicing as its main theme! Many who read Qohelet are left with the impression that the words of Shlomo (Solomon) are depressing rather than uplifting, and do not fit the theme of joy. Yet a closer reading of the book reveals just the opposite. In fact, the theme of the book is joy, but the surprise is where this joy is actually found. Read More


Qohelet and The Time of Our Rejoicing

by Tim Hegg
The wisdom of the Sages is displayed yet again in the tradition of reading Qohelet during the Festival of Sukkot. But it is not readily apparent why Qohelet was chosen for a festival that has rejoicing as its main theme! Many who read Qohelet are left with the impression that the words of Shlomo are depressing rather than uplifting, and do not fit the theme of joy. Yet a closer reading of the book reveals just the opposite. In fact, the theme of the book is joy, but the surprise is where this joy is actually found.

Sukkot reminds us of the goal to which we are heading: dwelling together in the presence of HaShem. Like the humble and transitory huts we built when we left Egypt, the sukkah we
build at this festival reminds us that our freedom to worship HaShem is our wealth, and that even if we live in temporary structures our joy can be complete… Read More


Remembering, Forgetting and the Message of Purim

by Tim Hegg
The Shabbat before Purim has traditionally been called Shabbat Zachor, or the “Sabbath of Remembering.” The additional Torah portion read on this Shabbat is Deuteronomy 25:17–19.

Remember what Amalek did to you along the way when you came out from Egypt, how he met you along the way and attacked among you all the stragglers at your rear when you were faint and weary; and he did not fear God. Therefore it shall come about when Adonai your God has given you rest from all your surrounding enemies, in the land which Adonai your God gives you as an inheritance to possess, you shall blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven; you must not forget. (Deut 25:17–19)

The command to “blot out the memory of Amalek from under heaven” is playfully fulfilled each Purim in the reading of the megillah—when the scroll that contains the story of Hadassah (Esther) is read to the community. In the Book of Esther, the first time Haman is mentioned he is described as “Haman, the son of Hamedata’, the Agagite” (3:1). Since the King of the Amalekites was Agag (1Sam 15:8), it would appear that Haman had ancestral linkage to the Amalekites. Thus, it became a tradition to “blot out the name of Haman” as the story is read by making a racket so that his name cannot be heard during the reading… Read More


A Review of Boaz Michaels “Tent of David”

A Swing and a Miss

By Rob Vanhoff

In this 9 page book review, Rob Vanhoff looks at Tent of David by Boaz Michael, FFOZ 2013. Vanhoff begins by presenting a short two page article named Slippery When All Wet (found on TR) to show how Michael uses terms without giving a definition. Vanhoff then goes on to look at some of the finer points of this book. Read More…


Romans 14 and the 4th Commandment

by Tim Hegg
The Sabbath is an important part of Torah communities. But we are constantly having to defend its value. One text that is regularly brought up is Romans 14. Did Paul really indicate in this text that the Sabbath was no longer valid? This short paper explores the text to seek its intended meaning and application. Read More…


Romans 6:14-15 and Under the Law

by Tim Hegg
What does it mean to be “Under the Law?” Are those who are coming to the belief that the Torah is God’s teaching in righteousness for all of His elect placing themselves back “Under the Law?” This PDF is a 6 page excerpt from Tim Hegg’s commentary on the book of Romans that covers Rm. 6:14-15 and discusses the phrase “Under the Law.” Read More…


Sanctification: A Short Study

by Tim Hegg
Against the backdrop of mankind’s depravity, this short study notes the utter necessity of God’s work in sanctifying sinners. The significance of this divine work is considered in light of how the Gospel is presented. Tim Hegg challenges the idea that once saved we can sit back and let God do the work. All we need to do is “rely and relax.” Rather, Hegg shows that sanctification is a cooperative effort between the renewed believer in Yeshua and the Spirit of God. Read More…


Saved by His Life

Reflections on the life, teaching, and work of Yeshua

God’s gift during this season of Pesach (Passover) testifies to us throughout the whole year. First, it reminds us of the reality of Yeshua life, death, and resurrection. Next, the disciples needed to learn how this reality impacted their lives. Also, we too find instruction that remains valid and real even after 2000 years of history have passed. Yeshua still intercedes for us and the seven statements made in the garden, before His death, communicate to us the heart of our Messiah’s intercession for His people. Read More


Separating the Most Holy from the Holy:

The ‘Veil’ in the Tabernacle and First & Second Temples

By Tim Hegg

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extant data, both biblical and extra-biblical, to determine as far as possible the manner in which the Most Holy Place is separated from the Holy Place in the Tabernacle (mishkan) and subsequent Temples (heichal). Such a determination is valuable not only for the interpretation of the biblical texts which directly describe the physical characteristics of the mishkan and heichalot, but also for an understanding of the application as applied to the work of Yeshua, especially in the Apostolic Scriptures. Read More…


Seven Steps to the Aleph Tav


by Rob Vanhoff
Maybe you’ve heard of the teaching that tries to connect the Hebrew particle Aleph-Tav (sign of the direct object) with the Alpha and Omega as symbolic of Yeshua (Rev 1:8; 21:6; 22:13). Now someone has even published the “Aleph-Tav Bible” in which they purport to note every use of the aleph-tav as having special meaning, pointing to Yeshua! If you would like a no-nonsense explanation of why this teaching is contrary to fact, read Vanhoff’s short essay … Read More


Seventh Day of Chag Hamatzot

by Tim Hegg


The last day of Chag HaMatzot (Festival of Unleavened Bread) is designated in the Torah as a day of gathering (מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ, mikra qodesh). Also, it is a Shabbat. “You shall not do any laborious work” (Lev 23:8; Num 28:25). Until the return of our Messiah Yeshua, and the restored Temple in Jerusalem, we celebrate the Seventh day of Unleavened bread by gathering together in the synagogue and remembering it as the concluding day of the Festival. Read More…


Shabbat HaGadol

Exodus 12:21-51

by Tim Hegg

Shabbat HaGadol, or “The Great Sabbath,” is the Sabbath immediately preceding the festival of Passover. It gained this title through rabbinic interpretation of the exodus events themselves. On this Shabbat, Exodus 12:21-51 is read, which recounts the Exodus narrative. In these notes Tim Hegg looks at the Exodus account in chapter 12 through the lens of God’s sovereignty. Read More…


Shabbat Hanukkah – Dedication

by Tim Hegg

In this short article, presented during the time of Hanukkah, Tim Hegg looks at what it means to be set apart… Read More


Shabbat Hanukkah – Hanukkah vs Christmas

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg compares the festival of Hanukkah to the celebration of Christmas. These notes were presented for the Torah portion on Shabbat Hanukkah … Read More


Shabbat Hanukkah

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the traditional readings for the week of Hanukkah. Hegg looks at Num. 7:18-29, but focuses on John 10:22-42. This article relates these passages to the festival of dedication … Read More


Shabbat Parah

by Tim Hegg

The Shabbat before the festival of Passover is known as Shabbat Parah, “Shabbat of the Heifer.” This is because when the temple was standing, the largest pilgrimage festival was Passover. Those who traveled to Jerusalem for this celebration would often need to be purified from corpse defilement. This can only be done through the ashes of the red heifer. Therefore it has become traditional to read Numbers 19:1-22. In these notes Tim Hegg looks at this passage and investigates the various views of Israel’s pilgrimage during Passover. Read More…


Shabbat Pesach

The Resurrection of Our Messiah Yeshua
by Tim Hegg

This article looks at the traditional readings for the Shabbat before Passover. Tim Hegg teaches on the significance of this festival and the parallels to our risen Messiah. Read More


Shabbat Sukkot

Rejoicing in the Living Torah

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the festival of Sukkot. This study begins by examining some of the traditions associated with the festival, then focuses on the presence of Yeshua in this festival. As a result, Hegg highlights the living Torah in this festival … Read More


Shabbat Zachor

Notes on Deuteronomy 25:17-19

by Tim Hegg

Notes on the Shabbat immediately preceding Purim. This shabbat is referred to as Shabbat Zachor, “The Shabbat of Remembering”, which is taken from the passage of Torah that is read on this Shabbat, Deut. 25:17-19. In this paper, Tim Hegg looks at the attack by the Amalekites on Israel, and as a result, the command of God within this passage. Read More…


Shabbat Zicheron

A Shabbat on which We Remember

by Tim Hegg
Yom Teruah, the day for sounding the shofar, is also referred to in the Torah as שַׁבָּתוֹן זִכְרוֹן , shabbaton zicheron, a Shabbat of remembering, as noted in Lev 23:24. The NASB translates the verse:

Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘In the seventh month on the first of the month you shall have a rest, a reminder by blowing of trumpets, a holy convocation. (Lev 23:24)

Like Pesach, which is also referred to as a day of remembering (Ex 12:14), Yom Teruah is one of HaShem’s festivals which calls us to remember, to be reminded of something of special importance. But while the obvious event we are to remember on Pesach is our exodus from Egypt, it is not so apparent on Yom Teruah exactly what is to be remembered when we hear the blowing of the shofar… Read More


Shemini Atzeret

Celebrating the 8th Day of Sukkot

by Tim Hegg
The Festival of Sukkot contains an enigma: is it prescribed in the Torah to be 7 days long or 8 days? The text in Lev 23 seems a bit ambiguous: (vv. 33-36):

Again Adonai spoke to Moses, saying, “Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, ‘On the fifteenth of this seventh month is the Feast of Booths for seven days to Adonai. ‘On the first day is a holy convocation; you shall do no laborious work of any kind. ‘For seven days you shall present an offering by fire to Adonai. On the eighth day you shall have a holy convocation and present an offering by fire to Adonai; it is an assembly. You shall do no laborious work.

The festival is specifically detailed as lasting seven days, yet a command is given regarding the eighth day. This is reiterated a few verses later in Lev 23:39.

‘On exactly the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you have gathered in the crops of the land, you shall celebrate the feast of Adonai for seven days, with a rest on the first day and a rest on the eighth day.

In fact, this eighth day is referred to as “an assembly” or a “holy assembly,” which is עֲצֶרֶת in the Hebrew of Lev 23:36, and thus שְׁמִניִ עֲצֶרֶת , Shemini Atzeret means “eighth day assembly.” Atzeret is from the root עצר (‘atzar) which means “to restrain, hold back,” and thus the Sages understand the designation to be referring to a “holding on to the festival” so as to restrain it from ending—making the festival last for yet another day… Read More


Shifting Sands: Investigating Salvation in the Messianic Movement

A Response to the Spring/Summer 2008 Issue of “Kesher”

by Tim Hegg

In this 25 page article, Tim Hegg looks at a 2008 issue of Kesher which focuses on Soteriology (the way in which God saves His elect). Within this article Hegg challenges the views from leading Messianic teachers on their understanding of  eternal salvation and relies upon the Bible itself to make his case.

Hegg responds to articles in this issue of Kesher written by

Daniel Juster (“The Narrow Wider Hope”), Stuart Dauermann (“What is the Gospel We Should Be Commending To All Israel In these Times of Transition”)

Derek Leman (“Those Who Do Not Obey the Good News of Our Lord Yeshua”)

Mark S. Kinzer (“Final Destinies: Qualifications for Receiving an Eschatological Inheritance”)

Scott Nassau (“Shavuot and Its Impact on a Messianic Soteriology”)

David Sedacca – (“Salvation and the People of Israel: Harmonizing a Soteriological Delemma”)

Arnold G. Fruchtenbaum (“The Condition of Salvation for Jews and Gentiles in this Age”)

Avram Aumick, Ralph E. Finley, Elliot Klayman, Howard Silverman (“The Essential Need for Salvation through Messiah Yeshua”)

Read More…


Shofar Service (Booklet)

by Tim Hegg

This 24 page booklet contains the traditional blessings for the Shofar service. Included are some additons to focus our worship on the Messiah Yeshua. Hebrew, English and transliteration make this booklet easy to follow. As a result, even those who do not speak Hebrew can easily follow along. Read More…


Should I Remove My Kippah?

A Jewish Perspective on 1 Corinthians 11:2-16

by Tim Hegg
Have you heard the argument that men who wear a kippa (yarmulke) are going contrary to Apostolic halachah? Here is an article that investigates the meaning of this often misunderstood text. In conclusion, Hegg suggests a different approach to this text. Read More


Should John 6:4 Be Considered a Spurious Insertion into John’s Gospel?

A Response to Michael Rood’s Fantastic Claim

by Tim Hegg
Michael Rood claims that John 6:4 was added much later after the Gospel of John was written. As a result, Rood believes this scripture is, therefore, a forgery. Rood’s motivation for this seems to be the desire to have a 70 week ministry of Yeshua as set forth in his “Chronological Gospels.” He then offers what he considers to be substantial evidence to support his claim, that the earliest Greek manuscripts do not include verse 4 of John 6, and that the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament with critical apparatus (27th Edition) gives clear evidence of this. This 3 page article investigates Rood’s claims and shows them to be utterly false and without supporting evidence, including that of the Nestle-Aland critical text. The paper ends with an exhortation for people not to follow his imaginative teachings … Read More


Slippery When all Wet (or) Duplo Dogma

by Rob Vanhoff
In this short article Rob Vanhoff looks at the different meanings people place on regularly used words and terms within religious circles and how readers think they should define these terms in their own minds. Vanhoff suggests we all slow down and define our terms before we assume everyone is talking about the same thing. Read More…


So Great a Salvation

Thoughts on the Holiness of God and Our Salvation

by Tim Hegg
A short essay on the holiness of God, derived from the context of Exodus 15:11. This article focuses on believers getting a glimpse of His holiness and how it enables us to see how great our salvation is. As a result, we see the true price Yeshua our Messiah paid to purchased us to be His people. Read More


Sola Scriptura: Should the Messianic Movement Reject this Theology?

A Response to the article, “Sola Scriptura” by Jacob Fronczak, Messiah Journal #111 (FFOZ, 2012)

by C.M. Hegg

The doctrine of Sola Scriptura holds that the 66 books of Scripture are the sole and final authority for all matters of faith and practice within a believer’s life. Within the Torah movement today, many are beginning to challenge this doctrine. Some have suggested that rabbinic works, such as the Mishnah and Talmuds, carry divine authority. In this article Caleb Hegg responds to an article by Jacob Fronczak at FFOZ, in which Fronczak suggests this doctrine to be false. Hegg begins by showing Fronczak does not understand the doctrine he is criticizing. In conclusion, Hegg shows that the doctrine of Sola Scriptura is important and also biblical. Read More


Some Responses to Nehemia Gordon’s Rejoinder

by Tim Hegg

This paper continues a debate between Tim Hegg and Nehemia Gordon concerning Matthew 23. This specific paper is a response to Gordon’s rejoinder. In it Hegg clarifies several points, and suggests that Gordon has not been as upfront with his audience as he perhaps should be. Hegg focuses on the texts employed by Gordon and the fact that these texts do not make up the majority of good sources on the subject. Especially relevant is the work Hegg has done on the Hebrew Matthew. As a result, Hegg’s knowledge of the Matthew DuTillet and the Even Bohan shine through in this response. Read More


Some Thoughts on the Issue of Calendars

by Tim Hegg

Within Messianic and Hebrew Roots circles, the issue of the correct calendar comes up often. Many separate over days and times, and perhaps for some legitimate reasons. We know calendar issues were debated in the first century as well. The Qumran sect may have had a solar calendar at one period in the community’s existence. But the Temple seemed to have a calendar most agreed upon. In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the first century and what we can learn from their practice. Hegg looks at various aspects of this issue, and investigates what calendar Yeshua used. If we can determine what calendar Yeshua used, we as disciples of Yeshua should, therefore, keep the same calendar. In conclusion, Hegg suggests we as believers accept Yeshua as our model for the calendar. Read More


Special Sabbaths in the Hebrew Calendar

by TorahResource

In this short list, six of the more important “Special Shabbats” found in the modern Hebrew Calendar are considered. Each Special Shabbat is listed with a short description of why these have been marked as special. In addition, each description gives the Bible reference that refer to each of the special Shabbats. Read More


Spirituality, Are We Better Off Now?

Tim Hegg looks at the claim that the Spirit is now available to believers in new ways that discount the “Old Covenant.” Many claim that the new covenant that all believers take part in through the blood of the Messiah Yeshua, is Spiritual in nature. This view holds that the Torah is summed up in “loving one’s neighbor.” The minutiae of the Torah (all of the many regulations both civil and religious) have given way to the leading of the Spirit in matters of loving God and neighbor. In fact, the whole concept of love now is the controlling factor, where it was not so in ancient Israel.

Tim looks at these claims response with a fresh view of the working of the Spirit. Hegg goes straight to the Scriptures to show a different understanding of the Torah in the life of believers, and the spiritual wealth within God’s law. As a result, Tim shows God’s Spirit guides us in obedience and sanctification. In conclusion, Tim shows that this leading of the Spirit is in fact a leading of righteousness which is found in the Torah. Read More…



Studies in the Shema

A look at Deuteronomy 6:4ff

by Rob Vanhoff
In this 6 part series (all 6 parts are contained in this PDF), Rob Vanhoff takes a detailed look at a section of the Shema (Deut. 6:4-7). Vanhoff looks at the history of this Scriptural passage which became part of the Synagogue liturgy, giving insight into the rabbinic history and thought as well as the Biblical passage itself. Read More


Sukkot Blessings (Booklet)

by Tim Hegg
The Blessings and selected Scripture readings for the festival of Sukkot. Hebrew, English, and transliteration make this easy to follow along. Read More…



Exploring the Significance of this Joyous Festival

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the significance of Sukkot. Included, are the significance of 8 days, why we read Ecclesiastes (Qohelet)  during this festival, and a look at the significance of the Sukkah itself… Read More


Tashlich Service Booklet

by Tim Hegg

A booklet containing some of the traditional Scripture readings for Tashlich service. Also added is a section from Colossians 2:8-14. Read More…


The Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:22-27)

by Tim Hegg
The Priestly Blessing or Aaronic Benediction: An Exposition of Numbers 6:22-27 including a discussion of the Tetragrammaton. Read More…


The Covenant of Grant and the Abrahamic Covenant

Can Royal Grant Treaties Shed Light on the Abrahamic Covenant?

by Tim Hegg
Understanding the form of the literature in which the sacred text is written is vitally important to interpreting it correctly. This paper shows the close affinities between the Royal Grant Treaties of the Ancient Near East and the covenant God made with Abraham. In conclusion, this then allows a clearer understanding of the Abrahamic covenant and its import for us. Read More…


The Deity of Yeshua

by Tim Hegg
The mystery of Yeshua’s divine nature is clearly taught as a reality in the Scriptures. This short article emphasizes a number of texts that point clearly to the eternal, divine nature of our Messiah, Yeshua. Though this doctrine is increasingly under attack in our times, we must affirm its truth based upon the clear teaching of Scripture. Read More…


The Dividing Wall in Ephesians 2:14

What is It? Who Made It? How was It Broken Down?

by Tim Hegg
Many people interpret Ephesians 2:14 as teaching that the Torah was done away with so that Jew and non-Jew could be “one new man” in Yeshua. Is this what Paul was teaching? This paper looks at the context, the grammar, and the words of the text in order to properly interpret the passage. Read More…


The End of The Law For Rabbi Lichtenstein:

An Early Messianic Jewish Interpretation of Romans 10:4

by Rob Vanhoff

In this article, Rob Vanhoff assesses Rabbi Lichtenstein’s view of the Law by translated passages for his own works, particularly his commentary on Rom 10:4. Vanhoff challenges Lichtenstein’s views, showing that he has completely misinterpreted the verse and thereby misunderstood its true meaning. Read More


The Feast of Shavuot: Some Chronological Suggestions

by Tim Hegg
The Sages fixed the coming of the people of Israel to Mt. Sinai on Shavuot in the following manner:

Ex 19 begins: בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁלִישִׁי לְצֵאת בְּנֵי־יִשְָׂראֵל מֵאֶֶרץ מִצְרִָים בַּיּוֹם הֶַזּה בָּאוּ מִדְבַּר סִינָי , “In the third month of the going out of the children of Israel from the land of Egypt, on this day, they came to the wilderness of Sinai”. The text is emphatic in specifying בַּיּוֹם הֶַזּה , “on this (very) day”, yet it does not specify the day. As a result, the Sages have concluded that the day is Rosh Chodesh of Sivan, the beginning of the Third month in the Hebrew calendar… Read More

The Four Cups

And Their Meaning in the Passover Seder

by Tim Hegg

This article looks at the four cups that are traditionally in the Passover Seder and outlines the significance of each cup and how this might relate to our belief in Yeshua. Read More


The Given Name of our Messiah

The Controversy over “Yeshua” vs. “Yahshua”

By Tim Hegg

Recently a lengthy email was forwarded to me in which the author of the email was giving numerous reasons why the name “Yeshua” was a deliberately “shortened” form of the original “Yahshua” by those who wanted to remove any reference to Yah in the name of Yeshua. Note one of the opening statements in the email:

We see above that the full “sentence name” is Yahshua notice the name contains the name of YAH followed by the Hebrew word SHUA “salvation” i.e. YAHSHUA. The “shortened” form Yeshua “no longer expresses Yahuah’s name clearly, it is passive voice putting the emphasis on “shua” and means “he saves”. Read More…


The Hardening of Pharoah’s Heart

by Tim Hegg

The hardening of Pharaoh’s heart has always been a difficult matter. First, and perhaps primarily, it appears out of character for God to harden a person’s heart in advance of giving the message. Moreover, this seems patently unfair. If God hardens the heart before giving the message, it is sure that the message will not be received. In short, this makes the whole matter of Divine revelation a kind of “sick, cosmic game” where an arbitrary God plays upon the weak, inabilities of mankind to satisfy his own hunger for power.

But is this how the Scriptures speak? In this article Hegg looks at the times in Exodus where the text refers to the hardening of Pharoah’s heart, showing the three different verbs that are utilized. Hegg shows that God’s providence and predestination in the affairs of mankind is a biblical reality even if we, in our finite understanding, cannot give a full and exhaustive explanation nor plumb the depths of God’s infinite wisdom and sovereign plan. Read More


The Hem of the Garment as a Covenant Sign

A Structural Element in 1 Samuel

by Tim Hegg

This article looks at the significance of the hem of a garment within ancient culture. Tim Hegg shows that to “grasp” or “hold” the hem is to signify loyalty and submission to an agreement or covenant. With this established, Hegg then turns to 1 Samuel and what this might mean within the story of King David. In conclusion, Hegg shows this to be a key piece of information that guides the story of King David coming to power… Read More


The Hope of The Gospel

by Tim Hegg

In this short three page article, Tim Hegg looks at Colossians 1:22-23 and Paul’s choice of words when he says that we should not be “moved away from the hope of the gospel that you have heard….” What does this phrase mean? In this passage Paul tells us that our salvation is procured through Yeshua’s death, resurrection, ascension, and intercession. Hegg builds on this and investigates the term “Hope of the Gospel.” Read More…


The Intercession of Yeshua for His Own

Encouragement for the Soul from John 17

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the seven requests as Yeshua prays just before being crucified, as recorded for us in John 17. The focus of this study is Yeshua’s intercession for His own within this “high priestly” prayer. Hegg looks at this passage and shows its direct application for our own spiritual lives. Hegg shows that Yeshua’s prayer of intercession in the garden is a model of the intercession He continues to make for His people, as Yeshua sits at the right hand of the Father. Since Yeshua is the Son of God, His prayers are always granted. Therefore, our salvation is secured by the continued prayer of Yeshua, for He always lives to make intercession of the elect. Read More…


The Meaning of Kafar: “Atonement”

by Tim Hegg

Tim Hegg looks at the Hebrew word “kafar” and what it means. Normally translated “to cover, conceal,” by English translations when talking about God’s dealing with our sin, Hegg shows evidence that this word should more rightly be translated to “wipe away.” Hegg shows that the commonly held perspective, that “atonement” provided a  temporary covering of sin, is false. But rather, this word actually carries the sense “to wipe away completely.” Read More…


The Meaning of Kafar: Some Thoughts

Some Thoughts as We Approach Yom Kippur

by Tim Hegg
Tim Hegg looks at the Hebrew word “kefar” and what it means. Normally translated “to cover, conceal,” by English translations when talking about God’s dealing with our sin, Hegg shows evidence that this word should more rightly be translated to “wipe away.”… Read More


The Number 666 in Revelation 13:18

by Tim Hegg
This article begins with several pages describing the variants in the Greek manuscripts, pertaining to the number 666 in Rev 13:18. Some manuscripts have 616. The name of Nero Caesar in Hebrew most likely is what John is encrypting in the number. If taken from Greek, the number is 666. If taken from Latin, the number is 616. Thus, this explanation, that the number represents Nero, is the best explanation for the extant variants in the Greek manuscripts. Read More…


The Pitfalls in Using Strong’s Numbers

by Tim Hegg

Many believers in our modern time don’t have a working understanding of the biblical languages. Because of this, many go to Strong’s Numbers to guide them in their studies in order to find the meaning of a given Hebrew or Greek word. Yet, is this really what Strong’s Numbers is for? In this short article, Tim Hegg looks at some of the problems that arise when using Strong’s Numbers. Many people don’t realize Strong’s Concordance was not created to be a lexicon (dictionary). In order to show the reader these differences, Hegg looks at language itself, then at what Strong’s is actually intended to help with. Hegg shows how many can, and have, gotten off track through misusing this specific tool. Read More


The Public Reading of the Scriptures in the 1st Century Synagogue

by Tim Hegg
This paper seeks to understand that various customs surrounding the public reading of the Scriptures in the 1st Century Synagogue. Did the early Synagogue utilize the three year cycle of readings (triennial) or was the one year cycle (annual) already in place in the pre-destruction era? What about the haftarah (prophetic) readings? Through researching these questions, Hegg shows that the weight of evidence leans toward a triennial cycle being used in first century synagogues. This may shed light on various aspects of the study of the Apostolic Scriptures. Read More…


The Religious Trump Card

By Caleb Hegg

Within various believing communities, there is a debate about being led with the Spirit. At what point does theological training end and the leading of the Spirit begin? What is more, how do we as believers know if a person is truly led by the Spirit, or is using this language to win a theological “hand”? At what point does the Holy Spirit become the theological “trump card”? Read More…


The Role of Women in the Messianic Assembly

by Tim Hegg

This paper is the basis for a DVD teaching by the same name (click here to view DVD). In this lengthy article, Tim Hegg looks at what the Scriptures teach regarding the role of women within Torah communities. Hegg begins by looking at God given roles as defined by the Torah. Hegg goes on to investigate what the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) teach regarding the role women within the synagogue community. Most noteworthy is Hegg’s investigation into the “controversial” passages in Paul’s writings. Read More


The Ruach and The Humble in James and The Dead Sea Scrolls

Thoughts in Preparation for the Day of Atonement

by Rob Vanhoff

In preparation for the Day of Atonement, Rob Vanhoff looks at the word “Humble” in Hebrew and in Greek. Vanhoff then turns to the Greek word translated “to yearn.” This paper shows the first century understanding of what it means to be “humble.” As a result, we are able to better understand these texts in light of the appointed time of the Day of Atonement…. Read More


The Sacred Name: A Study in Three Parts

by Tim Hegg
There are those who claim that pronouncing the Sacred Name is not only good but necessary for proper worship. This paper exposes the premises of this position and calls for a biblical understanding of the Name and its use. This paper was eventually turned into a video teaching that can be purchased by clicking here.

Read More…


The Same Old Heresy:

A Response to the Greater and Lesser YHVH Nonesense

by Tim Hegg
Some have suggested that Yeshua is a lesser reality of YHVH and by so doing, to give an “explanation” to the dual natures (divine and human) of the Messiah. This paper shows the fallacies in such thinking. Read More…


Tongues – Some Preliminary Investigations

by Tim Hegg

In this study on the spiritual gift of tongues, Tim Hegg begins with a study of the word for “Tongues” in the Greek. Hegg explores this word within the Apostolic Scriptures, the Septuagint, in Qumran and more. Hegg then turns to an exegetical study of the Greek word glossa in the book of Acts to better understand its meaning. In addition, Hegg looks at the purpose of the spiritual gift within Acts 2. In conclusion, the focus turns to 1 Corinthians 12-14. Read More


The Term Rabbi in the Gospels

by Tim Hegg
Yeshua is called “Rabbi” in the Gospels. Is this anachronistic? Was the word used to identify teachers in the early 1st Century CE? And what of the prohibition in Matthew 23 about calling anyone a “Rabbi”? This paper, read at the Regional Evangelical Theological Society Meeting in 1992, is an inquiry into these questions. Read More…


The Time of Our Freedom

Thoughts on the Freedom We Have in Messiah

by Tim Hegg
In this short study, Tim Hegg looks at the freedom Israel gained from Egypt as a result of the exodus event. Hegg shows the freedom each individual believer has in Messiah through participation in His death, burial, and resurrection. This article focuses on the redemption from sin which the elect enjoy. As a result, we now have freedom in Yeshua, freedom from the domain of sin. Read More


The Torah as a Marriage Contract at Shavuot

 Shavuot, the Torah, & the Arabbon of the Ruach

by Tim Hegg

In Exodus 19:1 we read: “In the third month after the sons of Israel had gone out of the land of Egypt, on this very day they came into the wilderness of Sinai.” What is curious about the wording of this verse is the phrase “on this very day,” which seeks to mark a specific day, yet without describing exactly which day is being referenced. Since the only other calendar reference in the verse is “in the third month,” the ancient commentaries of the rabbis consistently interpreted the meaning of this phrase to be that Israel came to the wilderness of Sinai on Rosh Chodesh Sivan, or the first day of the third month. If this interpretation is correct, then the Torah was given to Moses upon the mountain on the sixth day of the third month, that is, on the Festival day of Shavuot.

Hegg then goes on to show that the giving of the Ruach as the arrabon (Eph 1:13–14, “pledge”) fits perfectly with the imagery of betrothal, and thus of the very giving of the Torah on the same festival (Shavuot) upon which the Ruach was poured out upon the believers in Yeshua in order to empower them to begin the harvest of nations.…Read More


The Unity of Torah

by Tim Hegg

Is there unity in Torah? Or did God give laws that separate His people? Have you heard things said like:

  • The Torah is only for the Jews
  • Torah can be broken into civil, ceremonial, and moral laws
  • Jews are required to keep more Torah than Gentiles

In this essay Tim Hegg speaks to the issue of Torah as God’s instructions for all of His children, Jew and Gentile alike. This short essay shows the unity of the Torah and particularly how many times in the Tanach and Apostolic Scriptures, “commandment” or “word” is used in the singular to represent the whole Torah. This, therefore, emphasizes that the Torah is indivisible. Given this fact, the essay goes on to refute the teaching of some, that certain commandments of the Torah are for people with Jewish lineage and not for non-Jews, thus offering a strong case for One Torah theology. Read More


The Untranslatable “את” (ET)

by Rob Vanhoff

 Have you ever heard a Bible teacher say that the “et” (את) is a mysterious, untranslatable word that holds all sorts of hidden meanings? I have. And at one time I believed it because I didn’t have the proper framework for evaluating the claims I was hearing. In this short article I hope to explain to you the facts of the matter so you will not be misguided like I was.

The first book of the Bible (reading from right to left) opens with:

בראשית            ברא      אלהים      את         השמים          ואת             האר
the earth      – and    the heavens    –       God     created      In-beginning

In the beginning God created (את) the heavens and (את) the earth…

If you look in an interlinear Bible [which I’ve attempted to imitate above. Looks good on my screen; apologies if it looks crazy on yours.], you will see that this strange word את (underlined above) has no translation below it. In other words, the את appears to be untranslatable! If it could be translatable, then my interlinear Bible would have a word directly below it! … Read More


The Virgin Birth

An Inquiry into the Biblical Doctrine – by Tim Hegg

Many believers today do not understand the signficance of the virgin birth. Far more than simply a fantastic story, the virginal conception of our Messiah Yeshua is foundational to our very salvation. In this article, Tim Hegg explores the doctrine of the virgin birth. Hegg shows that this theology is directly connected to the way God saves His elect. Hegg looks at the various accounts in the Gospels to shed light on this doctrine, then looks at the early believers’ understanding of this doctrine. Hegg also explores the claim that this doctrine comes from pagan origin. This article is a wonderful resource for those defending or attempting to learn about the virgin birth. Read More…


Thoughts on Purim

by Tim Hegg

As suggested in the title, this paper looks at the festival of Purim. This study is perfect to read around the time of Purim, or during the year as a study in the book of Esther … Read More


Thoughts on Rosh Chodesh /New Moon

What the Bible teaches us about Rosh Chodesh?

In practical terms, how can our celebration of Rosh Chodesh reinforce the expectations of God’s appointed times? Moreover, does the Bible direct us to do something during this time? Tim Hegg investigates Biblical passages relating to underlying assumptions about the celebration of Rosh Chodesh. In conclusion, he shows that the primary commandments of the Torah relating to Rosh Chodesh were given to the priests in their role of announcing the new moon. Read More


Thoughts on Shavuot

Shavuot, the Torah &  the Arabbon of the Ruach

by Tim Hegg

This article by Tim Hegg looks at the chronology of counting the Omer. More specifically, Hegg looks at evidence from the text of the Torah to determine when the counting of the omer was to begin, thus determining the day upon which Shavuot would fall… Read More


Thoughts on Tisha B’Av

by Tim Hegg

Tim Hegg looks at the 9th of Av, which has traditionally been filled with woe for the nation of Israel. It is traditional to fast and pray on this day every year. It is also traditional to read the book of Lamentations. Hegg emphasizes that though the book of Lamentations describes the sorrow which the destruction of the Temple brought to the people of Israel, the primary message of the book is that God is in control and He is eternally faithful to His covenant promises. Read More…


Thoughts on Yom Teruah As Remembering

by Tim Hegg
In Lev 23:24 the text says

Speak to the children of Israel saying, In the seventh month on the first of the month there shall be for you a Sabbath, a memorial (זכרון) of trumpet sound, a holy gathering.

The day itself is called יום תרועה in Num 29:1

Now in the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall also have a holy convocation; you shall do no laborious work. It will be to you a day for blowing trumpets (יום תרועה).

What is meant by זכרון in Lev 23:24? The word itself is formed on the verb זכר , “to remember,” and is usually translated a “memorial,” a “remembrance,” or a “reminder.” Thus, Yom Teruah is a day on which the shofar is to be blown, and the purpose of blowing the shofar is to evoke a reminder. But of what does it remind, and who is to be reminded?… Read More


Tickling Ears or the Biblical Wow Factor

by Tim Hegg
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at a teaching by D. Thomas Lancaster (FFOZ) in which he finds hidden meaning within Esther. Lancaster suggests that finding the hidden meaning in Esther 9:7-9 prophesied the execution of 10 Nazi criminals. Hegg looks at the method used, and the claims made and challenges this view. In conclusion, Hegg suggests this kind of Bible study is an attempt to find the “biblical wow factor.” Hegg compares various texts of the Esther passage, showing the error of searching out hidden meaning… Read More


To Read or Not to Read?


by Tim Hegg
This is a paper dealing with the technical issues of the Masoretic text and the scribal notes. These notes show certain words that are written in the text (ketiv) that the scribes say should be read differently. This is noted by the scribes by placing the word to be read (qere) in the margin. Hegg looks at 18 instances in which the Hebrew word לא (“not” or “no”) is written in the text but the scribes instruct the reader to read לוֹ (“belonging to him”). Hegg then collates 10 English translations to discover whether they follow what is written in the text or what the scribes have substituted in the margin. Read More

This article was initially presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society.


To Tashlich or Not to Tashlich

Does the Tashlich Service have Pagan Roots?

by Tim Hegg
In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the history of the Tashlich service. This is the traditional service performed during Rosh HaShanah. But where did it start? … Read More


Trembling at the Word

by Tim Hegg

Trembling at God’s word means recognizing that His word is not manageable. It comes to us in the power of the Spirit as an overwhelming call to submission, as something far bigger than we are. It displays the awesome heart of our King, Who has called all of us into covenant relationship with Himself, and Who therefore subdues our puny minds with the grandeur of His omnipotence and eternal wisdom. With humbled hearts we respond to Him, “speak Lord, your servant is listening.” And He responds by handing us His revealed word as honeycomb, and kindly says, “eat all of it.” Read More


Two-House Theory: Three Fatal Flaws

by Tim Hegg

The Two House theory is quite prevalent in our modern time. Many within Torah Communities are being taught this theology without fully understanding the implications. This article address some of the more mainstream teachers that hold to this theology. Since this theory is widespread, there are many variations on this theology. Therefore, Tim Hegg looks at the mainstream works that have been put forward, and most of all, the problems they bring… Read More


Upholding One Torah:

Those Who Oppose Us Still Don’t Get It!

by Tim Hegg

This short article was written as a response to both the IAMCS Steering Committee and Daniel Juster of Tikkun Ministries International who have recently written public statements attacking One Torah teaching as being contrary to Scripture and promoting Replacement Theology. Read More


What Are We to Learn From Judas Iscariot?

Searching Our Souls at Pesach

by Tim Hegg

During the time of Passover, we read the story of the last supper, the trial and crucifixion of our Lord. This story is not complete without the actions of Judas Iscariot. This man lived with our Master, ate with Him, learned from Him. Yet he betrayed Yeshua. What can we learn from this man and his betrayal? What can his story tell us about Passover? … Read More


What Does “Plerosai” (to fulfill) mean in Mattew 5:17?

by Tim Hegg
We often hear people say that Yeshua “fulfilled” the Torah. By this they believe it means “He fulfilled it so we don’t have to do it.” Is this what Yeshua meant when He said that He had come to “fulfill” the Torah and the Prophets? This paper explores the meaning of the word “fulfill” in this text, comparing it with other uses of the word throughout the Scriptures. This article has been expanded in the book It Is Often Said Vol. 1. Click here to purchase it.

Read More…


What Does The Word Pesach Mean?

by Tim Hegg

In this paper, Tim Hegg looks at the Hebrew word Pesach (Passover). Does this word carry significance, and what does it tell us about how God redeemed His people? Read More


What Foods are Prohibited During Chag HaMatzot (Passover)?

by Tim Hegg
Every year when the festival of Passover is approaching, people begin to ask what constitutes “leaven?” What should be cleaned out of the home? This short article looks at Rabbinical vs Biblical requirements for food during Passover… Read More


What is Sanctification

An Excursus from  A Commentary on the Book of Hebrew, Vol. 2

By Tim Hegg

In this short explanation of sanctification, Tim Hegg builds on the phrase “pursue peace.” Hegg clearly shows that we can see a person’s sanctification lived out in their life. Those who are “pure in heart” will have this show through their lives … Read More


What Version of the Mishnah did Paul Read?

Investigating the Emergence of the Oral Torah as Authoritative Halachah

by Tim Hegg
In this article, Tim Hegg challenges the view traditional rabbinic Judaism, that the Oral Torah goes back to Sinai. Hegg suggests a later date for works such as the Mishnah, showing them to be long after the first century. As a result, Hegg shows that reading these texts back into first century Judaisms is anachronistic. In conclusion, Hegg gives a strong case that the writings of the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) are far more accurate to inform us about 1st century Judaisms than to rely on the rabbinic literature compiled centuries after the Apostolic era. Read More…


What’s in a Name? 

Thoughts on “One Law”

by Tim Hegg

In this short article, Tim Hegg looks at the label “One Law” as a title for a segment of the “Messianic movement” and a particular theological position. Viewing the theology that is put under the title “One Law,” Hegg is able to define the core differences between various groups within the wider “Messianic” movement. As a result, Hegg is able to show clear distinctions between various perspectives within the larger Messianic movement. Read More…


Why I Don’t Celebrate Christmas

by Tim Hegg
In Torah Communities there is a great desire to recover what we have lost and jettison the things that “essentially differ” from what God desires. Christmas has such deep cultural roots in the Christian Church that it is difficult to objectively evaluate its origins and assess its true value. This paper looks historically at the holiday, showing how many pagan symbols and practices are actually at its core. Read More…


Why I’m Leaving the “Messianic” Movement

by Caleb Hegg

The titles we use may say one thing to us and another thing to others. This article explores some of the wrong turns those within Torah communities have made. As a result, the titles “Messianic” and “Hebrew Roots” might carry baggage we don’t like. Caleb Hegg expresses some of his frustration with the emerging movement, and the various battles that are being waged. In conclusion, Hegg suggests these titles can do more harm than good. It is our conduct and our relationship with God that matters. Read More…


Why Nehemiah Gordon is Wrong about Matthew 23:3

by Tim Hegg
In several articles, as well as in his book, The Hebrew Yeshua vs. the Greek Jesus, Nehemiah Gordon teaches on Matt. 23:3. Gordon teaches that the correct reading of Matthew 23:3 is found primarily in the reading of a single Hebrew manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew. This manuscript is known as the Even Bohan or Shem Tov Matthew. The upshot of Gordon’s assertions is that Yeshua rejected all rabbinic authority and was Himself a Karaite. This paper shows why such an assertion is wrong. Read Gordon’s response, and Tim’s rejoinder to his response. Read More…


Why Nehemiah Gordon is Wrong about the Tetragrammaton

by Tim Hegg

In his paper Tim Hegg challenges Nehemiah Gordon’s conclusions, that he has discovered the ancient pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton, יהוה. Gordon contends that a number of times the scribes of the Aleppo Codex mistakenly wrote the actual vowels of יהוה. They did this, according to Gordon, when ever the Tetragrammaton appears with three vowels, i.e., יְהוָֹה, and from this Gordon concludes that the ancient pronunciation must be Yehovah. Especially relevant, Gordon’s has disregarded a grammatical rule to which the Masoretes adhered, and Hegg points this out from clear examples in the Aleppo Codex itself. Read More…


Women Wearing Tzitzit

Preliminary Investigation into the Rabbinic History & Halachah as a background for further discussion

Tim Hegg looks at the commandment of Tzitzit (Tassels) as prescribed by the Torah in Numbers 15:37ff, and investigates if this command applies to women. In our modern time, some teachers and ministries have taught that this command is only for men. The argument is put forward that tzitzit are a man’s garment, and that women should, therefore, not ware them. Other teachers and ministries have suggested that Judaism as a whole has deemed tzitzit to be for men and therefore the tradition is set. Hegg begins by looking at various rabbinic witnesses to see how the rabbis have viewed this command throughout the ages. Hegg systematically shows that tzitzit have not always been seen as only obligatory for men. As a result, Hegg suggests that this command according to rabbinic literature is for women as well. In conclusion this paper shows that Judaism does not see this as a cut and dry issue.

Read More


Yeshua VS the Hasidic Tsadik

An Exploration into the Theology of the Tsadik

by Caleb Hegg

With the rise of Hasidic Judaism, we have seen the emergence of the “tzadik.” This righteous figure leads his flock, enters the thrown room of God,  and presents his followers’ petitions to God. The Tzadik also intercedes for the sins of his people. This sounds awefully familiar! In this paper, Caleb Hegg explores the theological creation of the tzadik. In addition, the question is posed, “Who had it first?” Hegg makes the suggestion that it seems like it came from Christianity. Hegg looks at the striking similarities between the function of the tzadik within Hasidic communities, and the function of Yeshua in Christianity. The similarities are so clear, that in conclusion, Hegg suggests this is not a coincidence. Read More…


Yeshua and Worship: A Response to Paul Sides

by Caleb Hegg

In this short 5 page article, Caleb Hegg looks at the claims by Paul Sides that Yeshua is not deity, and therefore, Yeshua is never stated to be worshiped within the Apostolic Scriptures. Hegg shows the language of the Apostolic Scriptures is not as cut and dried as Mr. Sides claims. Finally, Hegg shows the scholarly debate over this is much more involved than Sides has led his audience to believe, and that there is plenty of evidence in the Apostolic Scriptures (New Testament) that Yeshua is the object of genuine, faithful, divinely ordained worship. Read More…


Yeshua: How Do We Know Him?

by Tim Hegg
This article focuses on the validity and inerrancy of the Gospels. Tim Hegg poses this question: “How we know Yeshua if the Gospels are not inspired Scripture?” Hegg then turns to Scripture found within the Tanach to show that the figure found in the Gospels had already been prophesied. In conclusion, Hegg states that we can definitely trust our Bibles, and that the witness of the Tanach shows the Gospels to be true. Read More…


Yom Kippur and The Messianic Believer

by Tim Hegg

In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the festival of Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). The focus of this paper is to see how this festival is so rich in meaning for believers. As a result, Hegg shows this festival to be centered around Yeshua… Read More


Yom Kippur: God’s Way of Atonement

by Tim Hegg
The Torah parashah chosen for reading on Yom Kippur contains the instructions for Yom Kippur (the Day of Atonement). In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the commands given within the temple service. What does this tell us about Yeshua and His work on the cross? As a result, Hegg focuses on Yeshua’s continuing work in the heavenly realm on our behalf … Read More



Yom Kippur: You Shall Humble Your Souls

by Tim Hegg
At the very first, when God gave the Yom Kippur commandments to Moses, He declared:

This shall be a permanent statute for you: in the seventh month, on the tenth day of the month, you shall humble your souls and not do any work, whether the native, or the alien who sojourns among you; for it is on this day that atonement shall be made for you to cleanse you; you will be clean from all your sins before Adonai. It is to be a sabbath of solemn rest for you, that you may humble your souls; it is a permanent statute. (Lev 16:29–31, cf. 23:28, 32)

Twice the Holy One repeats the injunction that we are to “humble our souls” on this appointed day. Traditionally we fast on Yom Kippur as one of the means by which we might “humble our souls” by way of deeper reflection and introspection. Fasting and humbling one’s soul has good biblical precedence… Read More


Yom Teruah – Rosh Hashanah

Seeing Life from God’s Perspective

by Tim Hegg

This short article focuses on the festival of Yom Teruah. Tim Hegg looks at the significance of this festival for believers in Yeshua … Read More


You Shall Not Boil a Kid in It’s Mother’s Milk

The Interpretive History of a Curious Commandment

by Tim Hegg
This paper deals with the three Torah texts which prohibit boiling a kid in its mother’s milk, the textual issues that are involved in these three texts, and the rabbinic literature which deals with the separation of meat and milk, based entirely upon these three verses. Hegg shows that there is absolutely no biblical texts which substantiate the rabbinic halachah of separating meat and milk. Read More

This article was initially read at the 2013 ETS Annual Meeting in Baltimore, MD.