Click the title to download the pdf file.

new Review of Andrew Gabriel Roth's Aramaic English New Testament, 5th Editionby Rob Vanhoff

This is a critcal, straight-forward review of the Aramaic English New Testament, 5th Edition. Vanhoff goes through a number of important categories, testing both the translation as well as the footnotes and comments throughout the translation against recognized, well-attested Syriac and Aramaic scholarship. In the end, Vanhoff finds the AENT sorely lacking. 14 pages, in pdf format.

Upholding One Torah: Those Who Oppose Us Still Don't Get It!by Tim Hegg

This short article was written as a response to both the IAMCS Steering Committee and Daniel Juster of Tikkun Ministries International who have recently written public statements attacking One Torah teaching as being contrary to Scripture and promoting Replacement Theology. 6 pages, in pdf format.

An Open Letter to the International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS) – by Tim Hegg

In this open letter, Tim Hegg responds to the accusation (made by the IAMCS in their recent position paper entitled “One Law, Two Sticks: A Critical Look at the Hebrew Roots Movement”) that he “equates Torah observance to the gospel itself,” a “gospel of obedience to the law.” Accompanying the letter are quoted examples for some of Hegg’s published works which show conclusively that the charge made against him by the IAMCS is unfounded and blatantly false. 2 page letter; 4 pages of excerpts.

Sola Scriptura: Should the Messianic Movement Reject this Theology? by C. M. Hegg

This is a response to the article by Jacob Fronczak, published in FFOZ’s Messsiah Journal, #111 (2012). The article shows 1) that Fronczak does not understand the definition of “Sola Scriptura” as initially forumlated by the Reformers and that 2) rejecting the truth of Sola Scriptura would be devastating for the Messianic movement. 10 pages.

The End of the Law for Rabbi Lichtenstein: An Early Messianic Jewish Interpretation of Romans 10:4 – by Rob Vanhoff

Vanhoff assesses Lichtenstein's view of the Law by translated passages for his own works, particularly his commentary on Rom 10:4.
11 pages

“19th Century Messianic Jewish Sages in Context” - by Rob Vanhoff

Looking at a number of Jewish scholars of the late 19th and early 20th centuries who had come to faith in Yeshua and were engaged in Jewish evangelism, Vanhoff translates excerpts from their writings in his search to find their answers to important questions being asked by the current messianic movement: "What is the place of Torah for believers in Messiah Yeshua? How are Paul’s letters to be interpreted? What is the relationship between the “Church” and the “Synagogue”? Includes excerpts from the works of Franz Delitzsch, Paul Levertoff, Joachim Biesenthal, and Jechiel Lichtenstein. 15 pages

An Assessment of the "Divine Invitation" Teaching - by Tim Hegg

Being primarily a Critical Review of “One Law and the Messianic Gentile” Messiah Journal 101(Aug 2009), 46–70, published by First Fruits of Zion. 69 pages

Response to FFOZ's "Recent Theological Shifts at FFOZ" - by Tim Hegg

This 24 page paper (pdf format) gives examples taken directly from the Study Guide and Commentary on Love and the Messianic Age, demonstrating the theological issues that are at stake. It points out the problems with accepting the Kabbalistic approach to spirituality appealed to be Levertoff in his Love and the Messianic Age. 24 pages

A Heremenutical Crisis in Messianic Judaism - by Tim Hegg

  • Are you hearing Messianic teachers saying that the we need to submit to "greater Israel" in our pursuit of Torah?
  • Are you curious about the mystical method of interpreting the Bible, formed on the word Pardes (peshat, remez, d'rash, sod), and whether it is a correct way to explore the meaning of the biblical text?
  • Then you need to read this essay. 11 pages, in pdf format

The Battle for the Bible: Are the Inspired Scriptures Enough? - by Tim Hegg

  • Some messianic teachers are telling us that the Written Torah does not sufficiently define how to obey God's commandments, and so the traditions of the rabbis are necessary in order to obey God has He desires.
  • They are teaching that God gave to Israel the authority to define the commandments, and that the Oral Torah (the traditions of the rabbis) is necessary to know God's will in terms of how to obey His commandments and live in accordance to Torah
  • In this essay, a clear call to the Sufficiency of Scripture is sounded
  • The inspired, eternal, and unchanging word of God must be our sole authority in all matters of faith and halachah.

What Has Not Changed at TorahResource: An Important Message from the Director - Tim Hegg

  • Is the "One Law" message flawed?
  • Are we wrong to teach that God expects all of His children, whether Jew or Gentile, to obey the Torah and walk righteously before Him?
  • Are there two covenants that bind people to God, one for Jews and another for Gentiles?
  • At TorahResource, we remain firm in what has become known as the "One Law" position because we see it to be based upon Scripture.

The Unity of the Torah: Are we commanded to keep the Torah or simply invited to keep it? - Tim Hegg

  • Do you keep hearing that the Torah is for Jewish people and not for Gentiles?
  • What about the teaching that the Moral laws of the Torah remain, but the Ceremonial and Civil parts have been abolished?
  • Are some of God's family required to obey more of the Torah than others?
  • If so, read this essay that speaks to the issue of the Torah as God's instructions for all of His children, Jew and Gentile alike.

This short essay looks at the unity of the Torah and particularly how many times in the Tanach and Apostolic Scriptures, "commandment" or "word" is used in the singular to represent the whole Torah, emphasizing that the Torah is indivisible. Given this fact, the essay goes on to refute the teaching of some, that certain commandments of the Torah may be for people with Jewish lineage and not for non-Jews.

Response to the Current Issue of Kesher: A Journal of Messianic Judaism - Tim Hegg

Is faith in Yeshua the only means of obtaining eternal salvation? You might be surprised at the answers to that question given by some of the leading authors and scholars in the Messianic movement. 25 pages

"'One Law Movements' – A Response to Resnik and Juster" - Tim Hegg

This paper is a response to an article written by Daniel Juster and Russ Resnik entitled "One Law Movements: A Challenge to the Messianic Jewish Community" in which the authors seek to establish their viewpoint that the Torah, in its fulness, is only for Jewish people.

"In the Name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit: Matt 28:19 – A Later Addition to Matthew's Gospel?" - Tim Hegg

At the close of Matthew's Gospel, Yeshua instructs His disciples to make disciples among the nations, and to baptize them "in the Name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit." Some have suggested that this phrase sounds too much like later Christianity and therefore consider it to be a later addition to Matthew's Gospel. This paper shows the solid evidence for accepting the verse as authentic.

"Why Nehemia Gordon is Wrong about Matthew 23:3" - Tim Hegg

In several articles, as well as in his book, The Hebrew Yeshua vs. the Greek Jesus, Nehemia Gordon teaches that the correct reading of Matthew 23:3 is found primarily in the reading of a single Hebrew manuscript of the Gospel of Matthew, the so-called Even Bohan or Shem Tov Matthew. The upshot of Gordon's assertions is that Yeshua rejected all rabbinic authority and was Himself a Karaite. This paper shows why such an assertion is wrong. Read Gordon's reponse, and my rejoinder to his response.

The Greater and Lesser Y-H-V-H Heresy - Tim Hegg

In attempting to explain the mystery of God, some have suggested that the Messiah is presented in the Scriptures as a "lesser" deity, the "Father" being the "greater" deity. This article confronts and exposes this heretical position.

"To Top"