Most articles are written
by Tim Hegg.
Articles written by other authors are noted. All articles are in pdf format.
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new The Lunar Sabbath Teaching – Lunar or Looney? - by Rob Vanhoff
Some within the Messianic movement are teaching that the Shabbat is to be reckoned, not by a seven-day-cycle but by the phases of the moon. Rob Vanhoff, Instructor at TorahResource Institute, weighs in on this bizzare, fringe movement and gives a straightforward, down-to-earth critique of it. (3 pages in pdf format)
Seven Steps to the "Aleph-Tav" Bible: Why You Should Avoid This Approach to "Interpreting" Scripture – by Rob Vanhoff
Maybe you've heard of the teaching that tries to connect the Hebrew particle Aleph-Tav (sign of the direct object) with the Alpha and Omega as symbolic of Yeshua (Rev 1:8; 21:6; 22:13). Now someone has even published the “Aleph-Tav Bible” in which they proport to note every use of the aleph-tav as having special meaning, pointing to Yeshua! If you would like a no nonsense explanation of why this teaching is contrary to fact, read Vanhoff's short essay.
On Decoding the “Paleo” Script Pictures – by Rob Vanhoff
Have you heard the teachings about the shape of the Hebrew letters giving “deeper, original” meaning to the words in the Hebrew Bible? Have you wondered about “Paleo Hebrew” and how the shape of the letters in some of the oldest forms of semitic writing might give insight into something one could otherwise miss when reading the Bible? Well, if you're wondering about this, you need to read this short essay by Rob Vanhoff, Instructor at TorahResource Institute. Or are you already convinced that the “original or deeper meaning” of the Hebrew words in the Bible can only be known when one considers the “meaning” of the letters that make up the words? Then you really need to read this short essay! (4 pages in pdf format)
The Hebrew Word Yada‘ as a Covenant Term in the Bible and the Ancient Near East
A short essay on the use of the Hebrew verb yada‘, “to know”, in the Hebrew Scriptures. (2.5 pages, pdf format)
Thoughts on the Ten Words
A Teaching Outline on the Ten Commandments
This 18 page file comprises the teaching handouts I used some years ago while teaching through the Ten Words (Ten Commandments). They contain thoughts on each of the Ten Words, including suggestions regarding both the positive ways in which the commandments may be guarded and kept as well as the negative aspects, i.e., how the commandments may be broken or disobeyed.
Should John 6:4 Be Considered a Spurious Insertion into John’s Gospel?
A Response to Michael Rood’s Fantastic Claim
In his current teaching regarding the chronology of the Gospels, Michael Rood claims that John 6:4 was added much later after the Gospel of John was written, and that it is therefore a forgery and should be disregarded as not original. He then offers what he considers to be substanial evidence to support his claim: that the earliest Greek manuscripts do not include verse 4 of John 6, and that the Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament with critical apparatus (27th Edition) gives clear evidence of this. This 3 page article investigates Rood's claims and shows them to be utterly false and without supporting evidence, including that of the Nestle-Aland critical text. The paper ends with an exhortation for people not to follow his imaginative teachings.
Blessings & Curses: Some Background from the Ancient Near Eastern Covenants
A short essay (5 pages) overviewing the manner in which Deuteronomy (Devarim) is structured after the common Suzerain-Vassal treaties of the Ancient Near East, showing how the historical background of the covenant blessings and curses can help us understand Paul’s point in Galatians 3:10–14, that Yeshua “redeemed us from the curse of the Torah.”
1Peter 3:19–20 / Did Yeshua Descend to Hell in the Time between His Death and Resurrection?
A short paper outlining the two most common interpretations of 1Peter 3:19–20, namely, that (1) Yeshua descended to Hades/Hell between the time of His death and resurrection, and (2) that in these verses Peter is talking about Yeshua preaching to the people in Noah's day through the Spirit Who endowed Noah with power to speak the truth, as well as in His pre-incarnate appearances, as in the Mala'ach Adonai (Angel of the Lord). 3 pages in pdf format.
Trembling at the Word

From the very beginning of time, the word of God has been under attack. Satan challenged Chavah (Eve) with “Has God said?" This short essay (7 pages) considers what Isaiah means when he writes the very words of God (Isaiah 66:2), “But to this one I will look, to him who is humble and contrite of spirit, and who trembles at My word.” More and more, even among those who class themselves as evangelical Christians, the word of God—the Bible—is being set aside to accommodate societal and personal likes and dislikes. This article challenges us all to consider the eternal value of God’s word and to tremble with joy at having words directly from God's heart to guide, convict, nurture, and strengthen us as we walk in the footsteps of our Messiah, Yeshua.

You Shall Not Boil a Kid in its Mother's Milk: The Interpretive History of a Curious Commandment

This paper deals with the three Torah texts which prohibit boiling a kid in its mother's milk, the textual issues that are involved in these three texts, and the rabbinic literature which deals with the separation of meat and milk. 30 pages. (Read at the 2013 ETS Annual Meeting in Baltimore, MD)

What Version of the Mishnah did Paul Read?

Investigating the Emergence of the Oral Torah as Authoritative Halachah

When was the Mishnah first published in a written format? Don't know the answer? Maybe this paper would interest you! This paper investigates the historical background of the emerging oral Torah, showing the clear distinction that was made in the early rabbinic period between oral and written Torah, and why it is wrong to think that the Mishnah necessarily describes Jewish practice in the pre-destruction era. 24 pages

What English Translation of the Apostolic Scriptures Should I Use?

Assessing the Claims

This paper first critiques the claim that the Apostolic Scriptures were originally written in Aramaic, then goes on to review 4 translations:

  1. The Aramaic-English New Testament (Andrew Roth)
  2. The Hebrew Roots Version New Testament (James Trimm)
  3. The New Testament of the Complete Jewish Bible (David Stern)
  4. The Messianic Writings (Daniel Gruber)
Theology Proper - Audio Lecture #10 - Tim Hegg

This is the final lecture (#10) in the Theology Proper series. The subject of this lecture is “The Personhood of the Holy Spirit.” The audio lecture is in mp3 format and is 45 minutes in length.

So Great a Salvation

A short essay on the holiness of God, derived from the context of Ex 15:11, and how getting a glimpse of His holiness enables us to see how great our salvation is, that which was purchased for us by Yeshua HaMashiach. 12 pages

The Number 666 in Revelation 13:18

Several pages describing the variants in the Greek manuscripts, pertaining to the number 666 in Rev 13:18. Some manuscripts have 616. The name of Nero Caesar in Hebrew most likely is what John is encrypting in the number. If taken from Greek, the number is 666. If taken from Latin, the number is 616. Thus, this explanation, that the number represents Nero, is the best explanation for the extant variants in the Greek manuscripts. 2 pages

A Study of the "Lord's Table"

What is the background of the Eucharist, commonly known as "The Lord's Table?" This paper offers an historical inquiry and suggests that the "Lord's Table" was the product of the emerging Christian Church as she left her Hebrew roots. It shows how 1Corinthians 11 refers to the Passover celebration rather than the later Eucharist of the Christian Church. 15 pages

Acts 15 and the Jerusalem Council

The standard teaching of the Christian Church is that the Torah is no longer applicable for believers in Yeshua. Acts 15 is often the text used to substantiate this claim. But is this what the Jerusalem Council actually decided? This paper gives an historical perspective to help in its proper interpretation. 17 pages

Are the Festivals (Moedim) for Today?

Those of us in Torah communities often hear from friends and family: "the Old Testament" feasts and festivals are not for us! Why are you celebrating those holidays?" This short paper addresses this question from a biblical perspective. 2 pages

Can We Speak of "Law" in the New Testament in Monolithic Terms?

This paper, delivered at the NW Regional ETS Meeting in 1996, explores the possibility that "Law" (nomos in the Greek) may include Oral Torah within the scope of its meaning when used in the Apostolic Scriptures (NT). Examples of adherance to the Oral Torah both by Yeshua and His disciples are included. 20 pages

The Chronology of the Crucifixion: A Comparison of the Gospel Accounts

This is a study of the chronological problems that are presented by the Synoptic Gospels when compared to the Gospel of John. In considering Matthew 12:40 and its parallel in Luke 11:29–30, which contain the statement of Yeshua regarding the “sign of Jonah,” I have come to the conclusion that the “sign of Jonah” is not the length of time he was in the belly of the fish but rather Jonah’s preaching which resulted in the repentance of the Ninevites. Likewise, the “sign of Jonah” is not given to indicate that Yeshua would be in the grave for 72 hours, but that like Jonah who was thought to be dead but returns to preach his prophet's message, so Yeshua would actually die yet return on the third day to proclaim the message of the Kingdom. But in contrast to the Jonah's proclamation to the Ninevites, Yeshua's own people would not repent when confronted by Him even though He showed Himself alive after His crucifixion.
Given this reassessment, the chronology of the passion of Messiah is layed out in accordance with the witness of the Gospels, offering explanations for what seem to be contradictions between the Synoptics and the Gospel of John. 34 pages

Counting the Omer: An Inquiry into the Divergent Methods of the 1st Century Judaisms

The controversies of the 1st Century as to how to count the omer (and specifically what is meant by "the day after the Sabbath" in Leviticus 23:11) are well known. But how are we to assess the various views? This paper gives a brief description of the different views, and some suggestions for how they should be evaluated. 14 pages

Did God Change His Mind About Food?

This paper looks at Mark 7:19 and Acts 10 (Peter's Vision) from an historical, grammaticaliInterpretation and seeks to show that these texts should not be read as indicating an abolishing of the Torah food laws. 13 pages

A Short Note on Mark 7:19

This short paper looks at the technical issues of the Greek Grammar in Mark 7:19 and particularly the issue of the antecedant of the participle katharizon, "making clean" as well as the textual variants surrounding this word. 5 pages

Did Yeshua Break the Sabbath?

Those who argue that the Sabbath is no longer relevant for believers in Yeshua often point to the fact that Yeshua Himself broke the Sabbath, proving it was no longer considered necessary. But did He break the Sabbath? A look at the Scriptures tells a different story.
6 pages

Hem, Covenant, and 1Samuel

The symbolism of the hem of the garment in the Ancient Israelite culture plays significantly into the narrative of 1Samuel. This paper explores the use of the "hem" as a structural element in the unfolding story of David's rise to kingship. 12 pages

Homeschooling – Why?

Torah Communities are finding that homeschooling is a common denominator for families who are serious about building Torah values into the lives of their children. It is something every family should consider. 7 pages

Lashon Hara (Evil Speech)

Nothing destroys a community faster than gossip. What does the Almighty think about "evil speech" (Lashon hara)? This short paper gives a brief inquiry into the biblical injuctions against gossip. 2 pages

Legalism: Some Thoughts

As followers of Yeshua come to live by Torah, they are often accused of "legalism" by their Christian friends. But what is legalsim? Is following God's Torah legalism? 2 pages

Mark 7:19 - A Short Grammatical Note

The explanatory phrase, found in Mark 7:19, often translated in our modern English Bibles as, "And thus He declared all foods clean," has been a source of much debate. This short essay outlines the grammatical issues and shows that the the modern translations are weak at best, and that the normal sense of the Greek fits the context perfectly. 5 pages

Matthew 5:17-20: Yeshua's View of the Torah

Matthew 5:17-20 gives to us the clear teaching of Yeshua Himself regarding the Torah. This paper is a line-by-line study of the text.
8 pages

The Priestly Benediction (Numbers 6:22–27)

The Priestly Blessing or Aaronic Benediction: An Exposition of Numbers 6:22-27 including adiscussion of the Tetragrammaton. 9 pages

Qohelet (Ecclesiastes) and Sukkot

It is traditional to read Qohelet at the Festival of Sukkot, but why? The wisdom of the Sages is seen in creating this tradition when the real message of Qohelet is understood. For Qohelet leads us to the true source of joy while living here upon the earth. This paper looks at the "traps" Qohelet warns us about that would rob us of true joy. 10 pages

Romans 14 and the Sabbath Commandment

The Sabbath is an important part of Torah communities. But we are constantly having to defend its value. One text that is regularly brought up is Romans 14. Did Paul really indicate in this text that the Sabbath was no longer valid? This short paper explores the text to seek its intended meaning and application. 2 pages

Separating the Most Holy from the Holy: The Veil in the Tabernacle and 1st & 2nd Temples

When the Gospels speak of the "veil" being torn at the death of Yeshua, what exactly is meant? This paper explores the veil that separated the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place and challenges the traditional view of the tearing of the veil. 12 pages. A separate file contains graphics and illustrations. 4 pages

Should I Remove My Kippah? A Jewish Perspective on 1Corinthians 11:2-16

Have you heard the argument that men who wear a kippa (yarmulke) are going contrary to Apostolic halachah? Here is an article that investigates the meaning of this often misunderstood text. 12 pages

Spirituality: Are We Better Off Now?

A popular belief in the Christian Church is that one is far more spiritual now than were the pious believers who lived before the coming of Yeshua. Such an opinion is usually based upon a "old covenant" vs. "new covenant" scenario, or upon the work of the Spirit. But is this what the Scriptures teach? 9 pages

The Great Commission: An Inquiry

What exactly did Yeshua tell His disciples to do in the so-called "Great Commission" (Matthew 28:19-20)? And what did He mean by telling His disciples to "baptize" the converts from among the Gentiles? A study of the text from its historical background. 8 pages

The Covenant of Grant and the Abrahamic Covenant

Understanding the form of the literature in which the sacred text is written is vitally important to interpreting it correctly. This paper shows the close affinities between the Royal Grant Treaties of the Ancient Near East and the covenant God made with Abraham. This then allows a clearer understanding of the Abrahamic covenant and its import for us. 13 pages

The Dividing Wall in Ephesians 2:14: What is It? Who Made It? How was It Broken Down?

Many people interpret Ephesians 2:14 as teaching that the Torah was done away with so that Jew and non-Jew could be "one new man" in Yeshua. Is this what Paul was teaching? This paper looks at the context, the grammar, and the words of the text in order to properly interpret the passage . 16 pages

Is the Torah Only for the Unrighteous? An Investigation into 1Timothy 1:3–11

This short article looks at the context of 1Timothy 1:9–10, which at first reading seems to say that the Torah "was made" only for the unrighteous. A closer look at the context and the words Paul uses in this text tell a different story, however. 7 pages

The Four Cups

In the traditional Pesach (Passover) seder, four cups are drunk, one for each of the phrases in Exodus 6:6-7. This paper explores the meaning of the each cup and its significance for our redemption in Yeshua our Messiah. 7 pages

The Role of Women in the Messianic Assembly

This paper explores the role of women in the Torah community from the perspective of the Apostolic Scriptures, giving particular attention to the passages that have been traditionally interpreted negatively toward women. 43 pages

The Sacred Name

There are those who claim that pronouncing the Sacred Name is not only good but necessary for proper worship. This paper exposes the premises of this position and calls for a biblical understanding of the Name and its use. 6 pages

The Term "Rabbi" in the Gospels

Yeshua is called "Rabbi" in the Gospels. Is this anachronistic? Was the word used to identify teachers in the early 1st Century CE? And what of the prohibition in Matthew 23 about calling anyone a "Rabbi"? An inquiry into these questions. 17 pages

The Theological Significance of Circumcision

In the 1st Century CE, circumcision was understood as a sign of being Jewish. But what was the original intent in giving this sign to Abraham? This paper looks at the biblical text, seeking answers to that question. 18 pages

Tongues: Some Preliminary Investigations

A study of preliminary questions for those evaluating the "tongues movement." Were tongues ecstatic utterance? Should everyone speak in tongues? How do we know that what is called "tongues" today is the same as the 1st Century phenomenon? 30 pages

Traditions: Some Thoughts on the Place of Tradition in Torah Communities

This paper addresses the issue of "tradition" in the Torah community of Yeshua. Sometimes Yeshua spoke against the traditions, yet at other times He followed the traditions. Here are some seeds for further dialog and thought. 6 pages

The Two House Theory: Three Fatal Errors

This paper gives a critique of the Two House Movement (also called the Ephraimite Movement or Messianic Israel movement), showing biblical and historical reasons why it is based upon a misunderstanding of Scripture. 11 pages

What Does "Plerosai" (to fulfill) Mean in Matthew 5:17?

We often hear people say that Yeshua "fulfilled" the Torah by which they mean "He fulfilled it so we don't have to do it." Is this what Yeshua meant when He said that He had come to "fulfill" the Torah and the Prophets? This paper explores the meaning of the word "fulfill" in this text, comparing it with other uses of the word throughout the Scriptures. 18 pages

Why I Don't Celebrate Christmas

In Torah Communities there is a great desire to recover what we have lost and jettison the things that "essentially differ" from what God desires. Christmas has such deep cultural roots in the Christian Church that it is difficult to objectively evaluate its origins and assess its true value. This paper looks historically at the holiday, showing how many pagan symbols and practices are actually at its core. 12 pages

Yeshua: How Do We Know Him?

Thoughts on our faith in Yeshua, and the Scriptures that are foundational for that faith. 8 pages

Thoughts on the Meaning of the Hebrew Word "Kafar", To Atone

Does "atonement" just "cover" the sin but not remove it? What is the meaning of the Hebrew word most often translated "to atone" or "atonement?" 2 pages

Do the Seven, Go to Heaven? An Investigation into the History of the Noachide Laws

This is a paper delivered at the 2006 annual meeting of the Evangelical Theological Society, investigating the Noachide Laws as presented in the rabbinic literature. The paper shows that the Noachide Laws were never envisioned by the early rabbis as a means for Gentiles to obtain a place in the world to come. 19 pages

"In the Name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit: Matt 28:19 – A Later Addition to Matthew's Gospel?"

Some have suggested that the ending verses of Matthew's Gospel were added by the later Christian Church, especially since 28:19 appears to contain a "trinitarian formula." This paper investigates the text-critical issues and shows that all extant data points to this verse as being originally part of Matthew's Gospel. 9 pages

Apostolic Judaism & Historic Christianity: The Core Differences

This paper contrasts the Hebraic worldview of the early followers of Yeshua and the Western worldview that enveloped the emerging Christian Church. 10 pages

The Deity of Yeshua

The mystery of Yeshua's divine nature is clearly taught as a reality in the Scriptures. This short article emphasizes a number of texts that point clearly to the eternal, divine nature of our Messiah, Yeshua. Though this doctrine is increasingly under attack in our times, we must affirm its truth based upon the clear teaching of Scripture. 4 pages

The Greater & Lesser YHVH Heresy

Some have suggested that Yeshua is a lesser reality of YHVH and by so doing, to give an "explanation" to the dual natures (divine and human) of the Messiah. This paper shows the falacies in such thinking. 7 pages

A Study in Morality: Pre-marital Sex and the Torah

What does the Torah have to say about pre-marital sex? This short paper demonstrates the high standards which God expects of His people in matters relating to marriage and the sexual relations that are to be reserved for marriage. 4 pages

They Pierced My Hands and My Feet: Psalm 22:16 in the Hebrew Psalter

Is there evidence that the original Hebrew text of Ps 22:16 spoke of hands and feet being pierced, or was this something that the Christians added later? The text from Nachal Chever is consulted and a photograph offered to show that the Hebrew did originally conform to what the Lxx translators wrote. 2 pages

A Short Study on Sanctification

Against the backdrop of mankind's depravity, this short study notes the utter necessity of God's work in sanctifying sinners. The significance of this divine work is considered in light of how the Gospel is presented. 4 pages

The Virgin Birth: An Inquiry into the Biblical Doctrine

What do the Apostolic Scriptures say about the Virgin Birth (conception) of Yeshua? Is this a foundational doctrine of our faith? What about those who say that the whole idea of a "virgin conception" is derived from pagan myths? And if the Virgin Birth is so important, why doesn't Paul even mention it? This short study looks into the biblical texts themselves to give clear and concise answers to these questions and more. 12 pages

What Does "Passover" Mean? A Short Study

When the Exodus text states that Adonai "passed over" the homes of the Israelites during the final plague of the exodus, what exactly does that mean? This short study shows that the verb means "to hover over" in the sense of "protect." 2 pages

How Does God Forgive Sin?

A short study showing the basis upon which God forgives sin is the satisfaction of His justice in terms of the "wages of sin." The payment for sin could only be made by the spotless Lamb of God, Yeshua our Messiah. 8 pages

A Congregation or a Community: For What are We Striving?

The current Torah Movement has come about because people have sought to recover a biblical understanding of the Torah and its application to our lives as believers in Yeshua. This paper suggests that if we hope to establish generational Torah Communities, we must have a similar reformation and reclamation in the area of ecclesiology, or the biblical doctrine of the "assembly" as a community in which God's work is manifested. The first step to such a reclamation is the establishment of biblical leadership within our communities. 18 pages (this is the complete study, parts 1–3).

"All Things to All Men" – Paul and the Torah in 1Corinthians 9:19–23

This is a study of 1Cor 9:19–23 which shows that when Paul said he became "all things to all men," he did not mean that he gave up Torah observance in order to win the Gentiles, but acted as though he were entirely Torah observant when with the Jews. When we study this text in the larger context, we see that Paul was not a "theological chameleon" as many have portrayed him to be. 12 pages

The Public Reading of Scripture in the 1st Century Synagogue

This paper seeks to understand that various customs surrounding the public reading of the Scriptures in the 1st Century Synagogue. Did the early Synagogue utilize the three year cycle of readings (triennial) or was the one year cycle (annual) already in place in the pre-destruction era? What about the haftarah (prophetic) readings? Were these already determined and set in the early Synagogue? These and other questions are addressed. 16 pages

Did the Author of Hebrews Change "Covenant" to "Last Will & Testament"

A study of Hebrews 9:15–17, investigating the use of "covenant" (Greek: diatheke) in the context and message of the Epistle. 8 pages

My Big Fat Greek Mindset, Part 1
My Big Fat Greek Mindset, Part 2

These articles are a summary of the complete seminar available in either mp3 or standard audio format, accompanied with a the full seminar booklet. You can click here to see the these two products in our online, secure Store.

These summary articles show the difference between the Greek Worldview and the Hebraic Worldview and how this effects the way we understand and apply the Scriptures to our everyday lives.

It is Often Said: 2000 Years of Christianity Cannot be Wrong!

Have you been told, or thought yourself, "how could 2000 years of Christianity, which has taught that the Torah was abolished by Yeshua and His Apostles, be wrong?" It seems as though God has surely blessed the Christian Church by sustaining it over such a long period of time. If Christian theology regarding the Torah is actually wrong, why has God allowed the Church to have such power and longevity? In this article, Tim Hegg looks at the fallacy of this argument and gives some straightforward answers to this line of argument. 6 pages

Yeshua's Intercession for Us

Many believers in Yeshua, if asked why the death and resurrection of Yeshua is absolutely necessary for their salvation, can give a good, biblically based answer. But if the question is asked, "Why is Yeshua's intercession for us necessary?", many have only vague or incomplete answers. This article offers an brief overview of the biblical statements regarding the intercessory work of Yeshua, and how this work is foundational to God's purpose in salvation of sinners. 8 pages

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